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17 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
1. What is body image?
How we see our own body, and how we think, feel and act toward it
2. What is a Healthy body image?
Positive self-evaluations along the four dimensions of body image
3. What is body image disturbance?
Negative self-evaluations along any or all of the body image dimensions; Example: perceptual, cognitive, affective & behavioral; women are usually more dissatisfied with their bodies than men
4. What is the difference between body reality and body ideal?
Reality is the actual physical appearance: height, weight, body mass, etc. Ideal is how we think our bodies should look and feel. If reality is ideal, body image is usually positive and healthy; if reality is not ideal, there are usually negative thoughts, feelings, perceptions and behaviors indicating body disturbance
5. Factors affecting body image formation and disturbance:
• Media: celebration of very strict and narrowly defined image of what is an ideal body through magazines, tv and movies
• Ethnic and Cultural Differences: reflection of those glamorized in the media; differences among different ethnic groups
• Activity Participation: Activities in which we participate influence the body ideals Ex: weight lifters versus gymnasts
• Changes to Body Reality: body image dissatisfaction has been shown to emerge in children as young as 6 or 7 and to become more pronounced with increasing age
• Sex Differences in Body Image Dissatisfaction: observed in children as young as 8 and continue through adulthood – most men want to be heavier and most women want to be leaner. This is a reflection of the body ideals constructed in society
6. According to Dr. Cunningham, why is body image important?
1. Self-esteem: positive association between body satisfaction and self-esteem; moderated by sex
2. Depression and anxiety: poor body image and antecedent of depression and anxiety, especially among women
3. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: defined as excessively preoccupied with some aspects of their physical appearance; results in obsessive-compulsive behaviors; muscle dysmorphia – preoccupation with muscularity
4. Health-damaging behaviors:
Eating disorders and unhealthy weight-control strategies
Body dissatisfaction seen as antecedent
Harmful effects continue if dissatisfaction continues ater treatment
Related to weight-control methods such as steroid use
Smoking
Many smokers report they smoke to maintain or lose weight
5. Health-promoting Behavior: body image concerns might prompt people to take better care of their health; healthy body resulting from diet or exercise program
7. What are 4 measures that one can use to assess people’s body image?
1. Perceptual Measures – assess the level of accuracy of judgments about the size of one’s body parts or the body as a whole
2. Cognitive Measures – assess the degree of satisfaction with one’s body shape, size, and function as well as one’s attitudes, beliefs and thoughts about body shape, size and function
3. Affective measures – assess feelings of worry, shame, anxiety, comfort, embarrassment, and pride in relation to the body; greater negative feelings associated with body disturbance
4. Behavioral Measures – frequency with which engages in behaviors indicative of body image disturbance; avoidance behaviors – actions performed to divert attention away from the body or prevent others from seeing the body; lifestyle behaviors – actions performed with the goal of altering the body or that reflect extensive body image concern
8. What measure has the fewest measures?
Behavioral
9. What measure is the most commonly used to assess body image?
Cognitive
10. Can exercise lead to significant improvements in body image?
Yes
11. What are the 3 ways exercise can lead to increased body image?
1. Improved physical Fitness – aerobic fitness, muscular strength and endurabce, flexibility, body composition, and ability to perform functional activities
2. Increased awareness of physical capabilities – more focus on capabilities and less on appearance; impossible to achieve cultural norm for body type, but very possible to achieve improved capabilities
3. Increased self-efficacy – improved physical capabilities might result in improved self-efficacy; improved efficacy might result in greater self-esteem
12. What is the top reason for adults to exercise?
To lose weight and add muscle
13. Why do overweight people often avoid fitness gyms and social settings?
Body image concerns
14. Why do people prefer hiring employees who fit the perceived ideal?
Because overweight are seen as lazy and unkept
15. Who will benefit the most from exercise?
Those with the poorest body image
16. What should exercise programs focus on improving instead of physical appearance?
Improving physical function, strength and endurance
17. Do body image problems affect both males and females?
Yes