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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Is SARS a bacteria or a virus? How many Canadians died from SARS?
Virus. 3 Deaths in Canada.
Where did SARS originate and how did it spread?
SARS originated in ASIA and was spread through airborne water droplets like a cough or a sneeze.
How many deaths occurred from the bird flu? What was the median age of the people infected? What can we conclude?
103 reported deaths were from bird flu. The median age infected was 19 years old. Therefore, the bird flu attacked mostly young adults.
What are the six chains in the "chain of infection"
1) Pathogen
2) Resevoir
3) Portal of Exit
4) Means of transmission
5) Portal of Entry
6) New Host
What is the West Nile virus?
The West Nile virus is mosquito-borne virus that can cause encephalitis. It first appeared in 1937. It was a "polio-like conditon" causing sudden limb paralysis
Explain the inflammatory response.
1) Histamine causes blood vessels to dilate
2) Heat, swelling and redness
3) Macrophages and Neutrophils attack infection
4) Pus = collection of dead white blood cells and debris
What is innate (natural)immunity and Acquired immunity?
Innate immunity refers to non specific defense mechanisms that a host uses immediately or within several hours after exposure to an antigen. Acquired immunity is your body learning to fight and recognize diseases as your life progresses.
What is an antigen?
An antigen is a marker on the cell surface that tells the body that it is non self and triggers an immune response.
What are the functions of Macrophages, Neutriphils, NK cells and Lymphocytes? Where are they all found?
1) Macrophages phagocytize the pathogens and is located in the tisssues.
2) Neutrifils are located in the blood and attack pathogens
3) NK cells attack cancerous and virus cells
4) Lymphocytes are composed of T-cells and B-cells that travel in blood and lymphatic system
What is the inverted J hypothesis?
The inverted J hypothesis states that excessive exercise suppresses immune function.
How are natural killer cells related to exercise time?
Natural Killer cells increase as an individual exercises, but NK cells fall below baseline levels as time passes.
What is phase 1 of the immune response?
Dendritic Cells internalize the pathogen and display the antigen on the cell surface.
What is phase 2 of the immune response?
Helper t-cells recognize the antigen and stimulate the production of killer t-cells and B-cells.
What is Phase 3 of the immune response?
B-cells secrete antibodies that bind to an antigen presenting cell. The cell marked with an antibody is destroyed by a marcophage. Killer t-cells directly attack APC's.
What is phase 4 of the immune response?
Suppressor T-Cells halt the immune response and return the body to homeostasis.
What is happening during incubation?
During incubation, the bacteria or virus bacteria multiply's but no symptoms are apparent yet.
What is happening during the prodomal period?
The prodomal period is when inital symptoms may present themselves, but the host does not yet feel ill. It is a highly contagious period.
How does a vaccine work?
A vaccine is an injected form of a dead or inactivated pathogen or toxin that the body administers an immune response to prime the body for future attack.
What is an allergy?
An allergy is a hyperactive immune response to an allergan. For example, mold, dust, dander
What happens during an allergic response?
An allergen stimulates the production of antibodies upon first exposure and the antibodies bind to mast cells. Upon second exposure of antigen, the mast cells exert an immune response secreting histamine causing symptoms.
What is anphylaxis?
Anaphylaxis is a systmemic release of histamine, and is a medical emergency. Administration of epinephrine is needed immediately. Symptoms include swelling of the throat, low BP, fainting, seizures, heart arrythmias.
What are the top two infectious diseases in the world?
Pneumonia, followed by AIDS.