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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is cancer?
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of mutated cells.
Differentiate between a malignant and benign tumor.
A malignant tumor is a cancerous tumor that is capable of spreading.
A benign tumor is a growth that is not currently cancerous
Differentiate between a primary tumor and a secondary tumor.
A primary tumor is the original tumor.
A secondary tumor is a tumor that has metastasized from the primary tumor and is now located in another region of the body.
What are the most common cancers in men and women? What are the most deadly?
The most common cancers in females is breast cancer, the most common in males is prostate cancer. The most deadly is lung cancer for both sexes.
What is dysplasia?
Dysplasia is the change in size and function of a cell.
What are the 4 types of malignant tumors?
Carcinoms, Sarcoms, Lympomas, Leukemias
What kind of cancers are carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, leukemias?
1)Carcinomas are cancers of the epithelial tissue. (Skin, Breast, Lung)
2)Sarcomas are cancers of muscle, connective tissue and bone.
3)Lymphomas are cancers originating from the lypmphatic tissue.
4)Leukemia is the cancer of the blood or blood forming cells
What are the two biggest risk factors for developing cancer?
Tobacco use and Diet/Obesity
At current rates, how many men and women will develop cancer?
At current rates 1 in 2 men and 1 in 3 women will develop cancer but more than half will be cured.
What age group has the highest incidence of breast cancer?
The age group 50-69 has the highest incidence of breast cancer 49%.
What are the 4 types of breast cancer?
Ductal Carcinoma In situ
Lobular Carcinoma In situ
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma
Invasive Lobular Carcinoma
What is the most common invasive cancer? In situ cancer?
The invasive ductal carcinoma is most common (80%). The Ductal Carcinoma in situ is the most common non invasive cancer.
Which cancer is a precursor to an invasive cancer?
The lobular carcinoma in situ requires a physical exam 3 times a year and a annual mammogram.
What are two surgical techniques used to remove breast cancer?
Lumpectomy and Mastectomy
Name the two estrogen blocking drugs. Why are they used?
Tamoxifen and Arimidex are used to prevent estrogen production because cancer needs estrogen to grow.
What are the ABCD's of cancerous moles?
A- Assymetry
B- Border Irregularity
C- Color Variation
D- Diameter
A diet high in fruits and vegetables, antioxidants and low alcohol intake can help with prevention of cancer. T/F
What is the CAUTION acronym for cancer cautions?
C - Change in bowel behavior
A - A sore that doesn't heal
U - Unusual bleeding
T - Thickening lump
I - Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
O - Obvious Change in a wart or mole
N - Nagging cough
Annual mammograms for women over 40 are required. T/F?
Are people with a certain personality predisposed to cancer?
The results are inconclusive.
Can health behaviors affect onset of cancer?
Yes, health behaviors such as smoking, inactivity, diet, and self examination can increase or decrease the risk of cancer.
How does a fighting spirit influence disease progression?
A patient with a fighting spirit has been shown to live longer than other patients who are depressed, use avoidance, and express hopelessness.
What did the "psychological response and 15 year outcome" study prove (Greer, 1991)?
Over a 15 year period, patients who had exhibited the fighting spirit lived more than groups showing different emotions. (anxiety, depression, helplessness)
What is the psychological impact of cancer?
47% experience some psychiatric disorder. Patients experience chronic mild depression and some experience Post traumatic stress disorder.
What are some social impacts of cancer?
1) tremendous strain on relationships
2) sexual dysfunction
3) Children of patients are fearful and angered (common)
4) Friends or patient may withdraw from social gatherings
How does social support affect onset of cancer? Married?
If no social support, one is likely to have more rapid onset of cancer. Married people tend to survive longer than single people.
When does psychological function return to prediagnosis levels?
usually after 2 years.
People of older age and have less physical impairment/disfigurement have better adaptation.
When giving a diagnosis, what should the physician do?
1) Make sure patient is alert
2) Wait for emotions to subside
3) present treatment planning
What are some specific symptoms of cancer?
pain, loss of appetite, nausea
What kind of training has been found effective in cancer pain management?
Relaxation and coping skills training
What is distraction training?
Distraction training was studied by Redd et al. 1997. Children who played video games during chemotherapy had less anxiety and nausea than those who did not.
What did Spiegel et al. 1989, find about the use of psychotherapy for cancer patients?
Patients who had metastatic breast cancer survived 18 months longer with psychotherapy.
What did Fawzy et al, 1990 find about melanoma patients and group therapy?
Patients who had group therapy and standard care had better immune function, vigor, mood, and coping than control group. 6 years later 29% of control died, but 6% of group therapy groups died.