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73 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Carbohydrate, lipid, and protein nutrients provide the energy necessary to maintain bodily functions during rest and diverse physical activity
Carbohydrates consist of what?
Monosaccharides consist of what?
-Glucose (plant source)
-Fructose (fruit source)
Disaccharides consist of what?
Polysaccharides consist of what?
-Glycogen (animal)
Glycogen formation from glucose (creating)
Glucose formation from non-CHO nutrients. Takes place in the liver. (new)
Glucose formation from glycogen. (broken down)
What is the role of carbohydrates in the body?
-Energy Source:
o 4kCal per gram (calories, if not burned, are stored into fat. Fat only continues to grow)
-Protein Sparer – If there is a lack of carbohydrates, proteins will be used for energy.
-Metabolic Primer – helps the system get ready to break down fats
-Fuel for the central nervous system:
o Brain prefers glucose as a form of fuel
o When there is no glucose, the brain will breakdown fats
Lipids consists of what?
-Simple lipids
-Compound lipids
-Derived lipids
Simple lipids consist of what?
Triglycerides are composed of what?
1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What does fatty acids consist of?
-Saturated fatty acids
-Unsaturated fatty acids
-Trans fatty acids
Saturated fatty acids do what?
-Primarily from animal products as well as coconut oil and palm oil
-Increase LDL cholesterol
Unsaturated fatty acids do what?
-Monounsaturated fatty acids
Trans fatty acids do what?
-Raise LDL cholesterol
-Lowers HDL cholesterol
-Nutrition labels: Can only be listed as Trans Fat free if it contains less than .5g per serving
-Created by adding hydrogen to food products, altering the cell make-up of foods
Compound lipids consists of what?
Main transport of lipids in the blood.
How would you get rid of HDL cholesterol?
Exercise and no smoking
How would you get rid of LDL cholesterol?
Exercise, diet, no smoking
What are the two forms of cholesterol and what do they do?
-Exogenous Cholesterol
oGained from our food intake
-Endogenous Cholesterol
oProduced in the liver
The body forms more cholesterol with a diet high in saturated fatty acids because saturated fat facilitates the liver’s cholesterol synthesis
What is the lipid's role in the body?
-Energy Reserve
o~110,000 kCal
o9 kCal per gram
-Protection of vital organs
-Thermal insulation
-Transport medium for fat-soluble vitamins
-Hunger Suppressor
Proteins: Amino acids- how many?
-Essential (9) versus Nonessential amino acids (12)
-Only 8 essential in adults, the 9th is present in babies
Proteins consist of what?
-Amino acids
Vitamins and minerals facilitate energy transfer and optimize normal growth and development
How many total vitamins?
Name the fat-soluble vitamins.
Vitamins A, D, E, and K
Name the water-soluble vitamins.
oVitamin C and B-complex vitamins (8)
oAct largely as coenzymes
oTotal of 9 water soluble vitamins
oNot stored in the body
Minerials make up _____ of body mass.
What are the roles of minerals?
-Serve as constituents of enzymes, hormones, and vitamins
-Provide structure in forming bones and teeth
-Help maintain normal heart rhythm, muscle conductivity, neural conductivity, and acid-base balance
-Help regulate cellular metabolism by becoming part of enzymes and hormones that regulate cellular activity
A result of a prolonged negative calcium balance. - Bones eventually lose calcium mass (mineral content) and calcium density (mineral density) and become progressively porous and brittle

____ of muscle mass is made up of water

____ of fat is made up of water.
72%; 50%
The body contains two fluid compartments-
§Intracellular – water within the cells
§Extracellular – water as lubricants within the eyes, etc.
What is the role of water?
-Water provides the body’s transport and reactive medium
-Diffusion of gases always takes place across surfaces moistened by water
-Transport of nutrients and gases in aqueous solution, whereas waste products leave the body through water in urine and feces
-Water, due to its heat-stabilizing qualities, absorbs considerable heat with only minimal changes in temperature
-Watery fluids lubricate joints, keeping bony surfaces from grinding against each other (ligaments)
-Being non-compressible, water provides structure and form to the body through the pressure it has on cellular tissue
What is a kilocalorie?
-Expresses the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1*C
-Measured using a bomb-calorimeter
Gross energy value?
o4.2 kCal per gram CHO
o5.65 kCal per gram PRO
o9.20 kCal per gram FAT
Atwater general factors?
o4.0 kCal per gram CHO
o4.0 kCal per gram PRO
o9.0 kCal per gram FAT
What is the optimal nutrition for exercise and sports performance?
-Portion Control
-Generally intake is underestimated
-Generally exercise/activity is overestimated
What should the Pre-Competition Meal be?
oPre-competition meal should be high in carbohydrates
-Foods high in lipid and protein should not be consumed on competition days
-The Ideal pre-competition meal maximizes muscle and liver glycogen storage and provides glucose for intestinal absorption during exercise

-Ideal Meal : The meal should…..
oContain 150 – 300 gr of CHO
oBe Consumed 3 to 4 hours before exercise
oAvoid high-glycemic CHO 1 hour prior to competition
oProvide adequate pre-competition hydration
During the race?
-Consuming about 60g of liquid or solid CHO each hour during exercise benefits high-intensity, long-duration exercise and pretitive, short bouts of near-maximal effort
After the race?
-To facilitate glycogen repletion, one should immediately consume carbohydrate-rich, high-glycemic index food
-Specifically, consume 50 to 75g of moderate- to high glycemic CHO every 2 hours for a total of 500g
What are practical recommendations for oral rehydration?
oDrink 250mL every 15min of a 4 to 8% carbohydrate solution
oConsume 400 – 600mL immediately preceding exercise
oAvoid beverages containing alcohol or caffeine
What are the reasons for revising the pyramid?
-To ensure the guidance reflects the latest nutrition science
oNew nutrient standards –DRI
oNew dietary guidelines
oFood consumption & composition data

-To improve pyramids effectiveness
oMotivational tools – Graphic/Slogan
oEducational tools – Interactive
Daily amounts in cups or ounces
What are the Dietary Guildelines?
oAdopt balanced eating
§3 or more oz. whole grain
oLimit intake of saturated fats
oLean, low-fat, fat-free meats, beans, and milk
oChoose & prepare goods with little added sugars
oEngage in regular physical activity
Include substances & procedures believed to improve physical work capacity, physiological function, and athletic performance
Ergogenic Aids
Mechanisms of Ergogenic Aids?
-Act as a central or peripheral stimulant to nervous system (caffeine, methamphetamines, alcohol)
-Increasing storage and/or availability of a limiting substance (Creative, CHO)
-Acts as a supplemental fuel source (glucose)
-Reducing or neutralizing performance inhibiting metabolic by-products (Sodium Biocarbonate,
-Facilitation recovery from strenuous exercise (CHO, H2O)
Promote well-being, health, and optimal bodily function or reduces disease risk
Functional Foods
Genes introduced into host plant or animal to modify biochemical pathways
Transgenic Nutraceuticals
Name the Nutrition Ergogenic Aids.
-Pangamic Acid (BiS)
-Buffering solutions
-Phosphate Loading
-Anti-cortisol producting compounds
Creatine sources?
Meat, poultry, fish
The body only synthesizes ______ in the kidneys, liver, and pancreas of creatine.
1-2 grams
Skeletal muscle contains 95% of body’s total 120-150g of creatine.
Creatine is for what and increases what?
-Short duration/ High intensity activities
-Increases in body mass, LMM and Speed
Caffeine enhances endurances performances by doing what?
§Increasing time to fatigue
§Reducing perception of effort
§Increases fat usage, sparing CHO usage
Caffeine may impair endurance performance by....
stimulating diuresis leading to dehydration
Alcohol provides __________.
7 kCal per gram
What are the ergogenic effects of alcohol?
-May reduce tension and anxiety
-Provides no know ergogenic effects on strength, speed, power, or endurance performance
Side effects of alcohol?
-Inhibits metabolism
-Impairs memory, visual perception, speech, and motor coordination
Analbolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of _________.
What does analbolic steroids do?
-Designed to maximize analbolic effects
-Enhance protein synthesis
-Inhibit protein degradation
-Increase sketal muscle hypertrophy & strength
What are the associated side effects of Analbolic Steroids on the Cardiovascular system?
-Increase in LDL
-Decrease in HDL
-Increase in Triglycerides
What are the associated side effects of Analbolic Steroids on the Central Nervous System?
-Mood swings
-Violent behavior
What are the associated side effects of Analbolic Steroids on the Hepatio (liver)?
-Increases liver enzymes
-Hepatic tumors
What are the associated side effects of Analbolic Steroids on the Endocrine system?
-Altered glucose tolerance
-Decrease in FSH, LH
What are the associated side effects of Analbolic Steroids on the Male Reproductive System?
-Testicular atrophy
-Enlarged prostate
-Male pattern baldness
What are the associated side effects of Analbolic Steroids on the Female Reproductive system?
-Menstrual dysfunction
-Altered libido
-Clitoral enlargement
-Deepening voice
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Growth Hormone
What do Growth Hormones do?
-Helps with tissue-building processes & normal growth and development
-Enhances the use of FAT & slows the breakdown of CHO & Protein
-May facilitate sketal muscle hypertrophy and strength gains combined with resistence training
A steroid hormone produced in the body, so it can't be controlled by the FDA. Acts as a precursor to estrogen & testosterone.
What are the DHEA claims? It's banned by the IOC.
-Preserves youth
-Protects against CVD, cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis
-Decreases body fat
-Increases body mass
-Boots immunity
What are the dangers of Amphetamines?
-Dependancy, headaches, tremors, dizziness, nausea, insomnia, psycholocial disorders, decrease pain sensations, heat stress, paranoia