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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
____ is the range of motion possible about a given joint or series of joints.
___ is the mobilization, freedom to move, or the range of motion (ROM) available in a joint or group of joints.
Factors that affect flexibility:
Bone structure - jt. type

Tissue - fat,skin,scar, muscle

Tendon and ligament

Age - fibrosis

Sex - females more flexible
List 5 factors that affect fexibility.
injury, improper training, sedentary lifestyle, excessive body fat, poor posture
____ refers to the portion of total ROM through which a jt. may be moved passively with no conctraction required.
Passive Flexibility
___ refers to the portion of total ROM through which a joint can be moved by an active muscle contraction.
Active Flexibility
___ is a ROM that is observed at a specific jt. and is isolated to that joint.
True Flexibility
___ is a ROM that is observed at a specific jt. but not isolated to that jt, rather the motion involves movement within other jts in the kinematic chain.
Apparent Flexibility
___ is the muscle that contracts to produce a movement.
___ is the muscle being stretched in response to contraction of the agonist muscle.
List reasons for the importance of flexibility.
Increased ROM

Improved performance

Injury prevention (exercise tightens/shortens muscle so more vulnerable; must protect form soft-tissue injuries)

Cool down phase - return muscles to normal length
Static stretching involves:
-slowly stretching to a point of ___ ___

-holding the end position for ____ sec

- relaxing and elongating muscle

NOte: Static stretching does not involve ____.
slight discomfort

20-30 sec

Stretch reflex
Ballistic Stretching involves:

- ____ in and out of a stretched position

- active muscular effort

- ___ ____ is not held

- triggers ___ ___

- causes large amounts of ___ ___

end position

stretch reflex

uncontrollable momentum
Dynamic Stretching involves:
- ___ ____ movements

- utilizes ___ of movements but avoids ____

- is ___ movement at end range

- develops ___ ___
activity specific

utilizes seed avoids bouncing


active flexibility
PNF involves:
- both passive and active actions

- facilitates ___ ____
muscular inhibition
Muscle Spindles:
- run ___ to muscle fibres
- monitor changes in ___ ____
- cause the ___ ____
- sensory neuron in the muscle spindle innervates a ____ neuron in the ___
- there is a greater stretch if muscle spindles are not ____

muscle length

stretch reflex

motor neuron in the spine

Golgi Tendon Organ:
- is a ____ near the _____ junction
- sensitive to increase in ____ ____
- causes a muscle to reflexively ____ thus decreasing ____
- invovles ___ ___ (when relaxation in the muscle experiencing increased tension)
- also involves ___ ____ (relaxation in the muscle opposing the muscle experiencing increased tension)
mechanoreceptor near the musculotendinous jxn

muscle tension

reflexively relax decreasing tension

autogenic inhibition

reciprocal inhibition
Stretching ___X/wk shown to ___ flexibility

Stretching ___X/wk shown to ___ flexibilty

Must be held for ___ sec for increases in flexibility to occur

CPA Guide recommneds ___ days/wk for adults and ___ for older adults
2X/wk improves

1X/wk maintains


4-7 adults, daily older adults
SAM stands for ___ ____ ____.
Stability Alignment Movement
In SAM, Stability means:
-specific to a joint and ___ of movement
-stablility maintained ___
-proximal and distal to jt should be stable

In SAM, Alignment means:
- should ___/____ activity position
- ensures proper ___ and ___

movement and stability
In SAM, Movement means:
- should be slow and ___
- should be isolated to ___ and direction of movement
- should not disrupt ___ or ___


stability or alignment
Stretching Guidlines:
- general to specific
-major to specific jts
-progress from static to dynamic
-stretch actively through full ROM
-aim for a ___% diff b/w active and passive values
List 3 reasons for flexibility improvement.
increased extensibility of ct

decreased muscular tension

increased coordination of body segments (stronger agonist)
List 6 controversial stretches.
Hurdler's Stretch

Inverted Hurdler's

Deep knee bend

Standing toe touch

Arch and bridge

Standing torso twist
What is the basic principle of yoga?
To achieve an increased state of concentration aand awareness.
List 7 physical benefits of yoga.
- increasing and maintaining flexbility of spine
- corrects body posture
- tone/rejuvenate nervous system
- gentle stretching, twisting, bending makes other jts + muscles flexible
- massages glands/organs
- improved circulation
- release tension
At rest ___ L of blood are pumped in one minute.
During exercise, ____ L of blood are pumped in one minute.
A healthy sedentary exercises __ X/wk
For a person with lower fitness, the functional capacity is less than ___
Can determine initial cardiovascular condition with the ___ ___.
Astrand test
___% VO2max is likley sufficient to elicit health benefits for sedentary adults.
____% VO2max is sufficient for apparently healhy adults.
____% VO2max is considered moderate intensity.
1 MET = ___
For an apparently healthy adult, the fxnal capacity will be ___
6-7 METs
___% of pop will be over/under estimated max HR with 220-age.
30 (70% correct)
An apparently healthy individual can last for ___ min at 60-85%VO2max
Increases in time may happen frequently (every ___ wks); some say no more that ___% increase in one week.

The greatest conditioning effects occur during the first ___ wks of the program.
For the ave. person, aerboic training produces a ____% increase in V02.
In water, gravitational pull is reduced by ___% when submerged to the neck.
Buoyancy supports ___% of body weight when submerged to armpits.
In water, one weights ___% of weight on land.
Water provides ____X more resistance than air.
Density of water is ____X greater than air.
Water conducts heat away from body about ___X faster than air.
Pressure on sumerged thoracic cavity reduces expiratory volume from ___L to less than __L

Vital capacity of submerged thoracic cavity is reduced by about ___%.
Water based HRs are about ___% lower than land based HRs.