Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/90

Click to flip

90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The urinary system consists of ______, ureters, bladder and urethra
kidneys
The urinary system consists of kidneys, ______, bladder and urethra
ureters
The urinary system consists of kidneys, ureters, ______ and urethra
bladder
The urinary system consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder and ______.
urethra
The ______ system consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
urinary
What is the most important function of the kidney?
homeostatic regulation of the water and ion concentration of the blood
Functions of the kidneys
Regulation of ______cellular fluid volume
extra
When extracellular fluid vol decreases blood pressure also ______.
decreases
If vol. and blood pressure fall too low what happens?
cannot maintain adequate blood flow to brain and other organs
Kidneys work with ______.
cadiovascular system
Functions of the kidneys
Regulation of os______.
osmolarity
kidneys integrated with behavior such as ______ to maintain blood osmolarity at a value close to 290 mOsM.
thirst
kidneys integrated with behavior such as thirst to maintain blood osmolarity at a value close to kidneys integrated with behavior such as thirst to maintain blood osmolarity at a value close to ______ mOsM.
290 mOsM.
Functions of the kidneys:
Maintainance of ______ balance
ion
The kidneys keep conc. of ______ within a normal range by balancing dietary intake with urinary loss.
key ions
________ is the major ion involved in regulation of extracellular fluid vol. and osmolarity.
sodium ion
______ and calcium concentrations are also closely regulated.
Potassium
Potassium and ______ concentrations are also closely regulated.
calcium
FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEY:
Homeostatic regulation of ______
pH
If extracellular fluid too acidic, the kidneys remove ______ and conserve bicarbonate, which act as a buffer.
H+
If extracellular fluid too acidic, the kidneys remove H+ and conserve ______, which act as a buffer.
bicarbonate
If extracellular fluid too acidic, the kidneys remove H+ and conserve bicarbonate, which act as a ______.
buffer
If ______ ______ too acidic, the kidneys remove H+ and conserve bicarbonate, which act as a buffer.
extracellular fluid
When extracellular fluid becomes too alkaline, kidneys remove ______ ions and conserve H ions.
bicarbonate ions
When extracellular fluid becomes too alkaline, kidneys remove bicarbonate ions and conserve ______ ions.
H ions
When extracellular fluid becomes too ______, kidneys remove bicarbonate ions and conserve H ions.
alkaline
The kidneys (do/do not) pH disturbances as rapidly as lungs do.
do not
FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEYS:
excretion of ______ and foreign substances
wastes
2 types of wastes:
______ of metabolism and foreign substances, such as drugs and environmental toxins.
by-products
2 types of wastes:
by-products of metabolism and ______, such as drugs and environmental toxins.
foreign substances
Metabolic wastes include ______ from muscle metabolism.
creatinine
Metabolic wastes include creatinine from ______ metabolism.
muscle
Metabolic wastes include nitrogenous wastes ______ and uric acid.
urea
Metabolic wastes include nitrogenous wastes urea and ______ acid.
uric acid.
Yellow color of urine the result of:
urobilinogen, a metabolite of Hb
saccharin is removed by:
kidneys
anion benzoate removed by:
kidneys
FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEY
Production of H______
Hormones
important role in 3 endocrine pathways: ______, renin, and renal enzymes.
erythropoietin
important role in 3 endocrine pathways: erythropoietin, ______, and renal enzymes.
renin
important role in 3 endocrine pathways: erythropoietin, renin, and _______ enzymes.
renal enzymes
erythropoietin function:
cyto/hormone that regulates RBC synthesis
renin function:
regs. hormone production involved in sodium balance
and BP homeostasis.
renal enzymes function:
converts vit D3 into a hormone that regs Ca2+ balance
you must lose approximately ______ of kidney function befpre homeostasis is affected
3/4
What happens to the Resting membrane potential of a neuron if extracellular K+ levels decrease?
hyperpolarizes membrane and makes the neuron less likely to fire an AP in response to a stimulus that would normally be above the threshold.
The urinary system consists of ______, ureters, bladder and urethra.
kidneys
The urinary system consists of kidneys, ______, bladder and urethra.
ureters
The urinary system consists of kidneys, ureters, ______ and urethra.
bladder
The urinary system consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder and ______.
urethra.
The ______ system consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
urinary
In the first step in urine production, ______ and solutes move from plasma into nephrons.
water
In the first step in urine production, water and solutes move from ______ into nephrons.
plasma
Each nephron has both ______ elements and tubular elements.
vascular
Each nephron has both vascular elements and ______ elements.
tubular
Arterial blood arriving at a nephron passes from the ______ arteriole into the glomerulus.
afferent arteriole
Arterial blood arriving at a nephron passes from the afferent arteriole into the ______.
glomerulus
Where are glomeruli located?
cortex of kidney
blood leaving glomerulus flows into an ______,
efferent arteriole
after the efferent arteriole it then enters ______.
peritubular capillaries
Long capillaries that dip into the medulla are part of the ______.
vasa recta
Fluid moves outof the tubule and back into blood as it passes thru the peritubular capillaries and ______ recta.
vasa recta
Exits the kidney thru what?
renal vein
TUBULAR ELEMENTS OF THE KIDNEY:
Begins with
Bowman's capsule
combination of Bowman'capsule and glomerulus is called what?
renal corpuscle
From Bowman's capsule filtered fluid flows into the ______.
proximal tubule
After the proximal tubule it flows to ______,
loop of Henle
loop of Henle is divided in 2 limbs, ______ and descending limbs.
ascending
In descending limb, flow goes into medulla, T/F.
T
In ascending limb, flow goes back into cortex. T/F
T
Fluid leaving the loop of Henle goes into the ______.
distal tubule
What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
where the tubule twists and folds back on itself.
key feature of autoregulation?
proximity of tubule and arterioles which allows paracrine communication between the structures.
Distal tubules drain into a single ______.
collecting duct
The distal tubules and collecting duct together form what?
distal nephron
What happens to the Resting membrane potential of a neuron if extracellular K+ levels decrease?
hyperpolarizes membrane and makes the neuron less likely to fire an AP in response to a stimulus that would normally be above the threshold.
The urinary system consists of ______, ureters, bladder and urethra.
kidneys
The urinary system consists of kidneys, ______, bladder and urethra.
ureters
The urinary system consists of kidneys, ureters, ______ and urethra.
bladder
The urinary system consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder and ______.
urethra.
The ______ system consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
urinary
In the first step in urine production, ______ and solutes move from plasma into nephrons.
water
In the first step in urine production, water and solutes move from ______ into nephrons.
plasma
Each nephron has both ______ elements and tubular elements.
vascular
Each nephron has both vascular elements and ______ elements.
tubular
Arterial blood arriving at a nephron passes from the ______ arteriole into the glomerulus.
afferent arteriole
Arterial blood arriving at a nephron passes from the afferent arteriole into the ______.
glomerulus
Where are glomeruli located?
cortex of kidney
blood leaving glomerulus flows into an ______,
efferent arteriole
after the efferent arteriole it then enters ______.
peritubular capillaries