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30 Cards in this Set

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Where does neuroectoderm come from?
ectoderm
How does the neural tube develop?
the neural plate forms from the neuroectoderm and folds over
What does the neural canal develop into?
spinal cord, 3rd ventricle and lateral ventricles of the telencephalon.
Where does neural fold closure begin?
In the middle
What day does the cranial neuropore close? caudal? What happens if there is a delay? Why does this happen?
25--if not exencephaly

27 for caudal; if not spina bifida

if closure is delayed then the window for forming mesoderms will stop
What is Acrania? Why does it happen?
telencephalon does not form adn the largest part of the brain does not work. Happens when the cranial neuropore fails to close on day 25.

Baby will not develop any mental functions and will die still born or a few days after birth.
What is rechesis?
Another result of caudal neuropore not closing on day 27--baby will not be able to walk and will die early
What happens to somites as the brain expands?
They grow
What are the 3 parts of the developing brain?
prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
What does the neural canal differentiate into? When?
@ 4wks embryo

brain=ventricles
spinal cord = spinal canal
How do cells divide at 4 weeks between the neural canal and mesodermal space? Where is the basal lamina?
Basal lamina is surrounding the outer surface of the brain. Cell division occurs between the neural canal and mesodermal space. Cells undergoing division are closest to the neural canal. Once division is complete the cell is at rest and binds to both the basal lamina and the neural canal space.
What happens at 5 wks? 6-10wks?
5th: 1st differentiation of nerve cells, axons begin to migrate out of the CNS--MYOBLASTS FORM--PRECURSORS TO MM CELLS. MUSCLES MOVE NERVES FOLLOW

6-10wks: intensive differentiation of stem cells into neural tissue
Which cells are derived from neuroepithelim?
ependyma, neuroblasts and glial cells
What is the funciton of an ependyma cell?
thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricles of the brain and the spinal cord canal
What does a neuroblast become?
neuroblast becomes a neuron which can develop an axon and then end up in the periphery surrounded by schwann cells (note schwan cells w/in CNS and have a basal lamina)
What do glioblasts form?
oligodendrocytes and astroglia
What is function of an astrocyte?
astrocyte: protect the surface of cells with foot processes and line blood vessels and everything else in the CNS

also forms microglia from a blood borne precursor which acts similarly to a macrophage--cleaning up bacteria etc.
What does an oligodendrocyte do?
produce myelin
What does the ventricular zone become? intermediate? marginal?
ventricular is the cell source

intermediate becomes grey matter

marginal zone becomes white matter
Name 2 genes involved in neural tube development and describe their specific function.
Bone morphogenic proteins--BMP Involved with ROOF pate

Sonic hedgehog most involved with FLOOR plate
Where do neural crest cells come from?

What does it differentiate into?
the neuroectoderm

differentiates into

peripheral nerve cells (autonomic and sensory )

support cells (schwann, satellite)

melanocytes

adrenal medulla cells
What is the intermediate zone called in the dorsal part of the developing brain? in the ventral part?

What does each become?

What separates the two?
dorsal: alar--sensory

ventral: basal--motor

separated by a groove in the neural canal SULCUS LIMITANS
Which is further from the basal/alar plate somatic or visceral?
somatic further from basal plate
Where do the following develop from:

DRG and spinal roots

ventral horn

dorsal horn

white matter

spinal canal
DRG and spinal roots from nerual crest

dorsal horn from alar plate

ventral horn from basal plate

marginal zone

neural canal
Determine if the origin of each of the following is from the alar or basal plate:

red nucleus

inferior colliculus

mesencephalic nucelus of V.

occulomotor nucleus

sustantia nigra
inferior colliuclus, mesencephalic nucelus of V from alar plate

occulomotor nucleus, red nucleus, and sustantia nigra from basal plate
A loss of what can cause parkinsons?
loss of sustantia nigra
What is the function of the red nucleus?
motor (basal plate)
Where is the spinal cord @ 7 months of fetal life? At birth? By adult hood?
7mos fetus: S1

birth: L3

Adult: L1
When does the spinal cord fill the vertebral canal?
8wks
What fails to develop when there's a delay in the caudal neuropore?

What is it called when spina bifida is hidden? when it forms a cyst of dura?
lamina of the vertebra is missing--fails to develop so cord is unprotected

hidden: occulta

cyst: cystica