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4 Cards in this Set

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What is a Thoraeus filter and where is the highest Z material?
The Thoraeus filter is a combination filter containing plates of tin, copper, and aluminum and have been designed to increase the resulting half-value layer of the orthovoltage beams without reducing the beam intensity to unacceptably low values.

Combination filters must be arranged with the highest atomic number material nearest the x-ray target.

The filter is inserted with tin facing the x-ray tube and the aluminum facing the patient, with copper sandwiched between the tin and the aluminum plates.
How do you measure beam quality? Direct and Indirect measurements?
The quality of x-ray beams is specified by kVp, filtration and HVL (for diagnostic) and MV and percent depth dose in water (for mega-voltage x-rays)

Direct measurement- Voltage Divider, sphere-gap method

Indirect measurement- Fluorescence, attenuation, or a penetramter such as an Adrian Crooks cassette.
Define "Effective Energy"
Effective of equivalent energy of an x-ray beam is the energy of a mono-energetic photon beam that has the same HVL as the given beam.
How do you measure the energy spectrum
The Energy spectrum of an x-ray beam can be measured by scintillation spectrometry. The spectrum may be displayed in terms of photon fluence per unit energy interval as a function of photon energy.