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38 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
the individuals of a species within a given area

population


a subdivision within a population having restricted exchange of individuals with the remainder of the population

subpopulations


the density and spacing of individuals within a suitable habitat and the proportions of individuals in each age class

population structure


the change in ecological systems, especially applied to populations, over time because of births, deaths, and movement of individuals

dynamic behavior


the geographic range of a population or other ecological unit.

distribution


the distribution of a population in space

geographic range


the spacing of individuals in a population with respect to one another.

dispersion


distribution of individuals in discrete groups (i.e. tendency for association)

clumped distribution


distribution in which each individual maintains a minimum distance between itself and its neighbors

spaced distribution


the condition in which individuals are distributed throughout a homogeneous area without regard to the presence of others

random distribution


views a population as a set of subpopulations occupying patches of a particular habitat type, between which individuals move occasionally

metapopulation model


the intervening habitat surrounding suitable habitat patches for a particular species which is viewed only as a barrier to the movement of individuals between subpopulations

habitat matrix


a depiction of population structure (which assumes that there are differences in the quality of patches of the suitable habitat type) in which some subpopulations produce excess offspring () and others would decline in size without immigration ()

sourcesink model


a depiction of subpopulations in which movement between patches is influenced by the types of intervening habitats

landscape model


the number of individuals per unit of area

density


method of estimating the size of a population by the recapture of marked individuals

markrecapture


study of populations (i.e. their age structure and growth rate)

demography


when young individuals are added to the population continuously and a plot of the population increase as a function of time forms a smooth curve

exponential growth


periodic increase or decrease in a population in which the increment is proportional to the number of individuals at the beginning of the period

geometric growth


a summary by age of the survivorship and fecundity of individuals in a population. It can be used to model the addition and removal of individuals in a local population (in the absence of immigration and emigration)

life table


the rate at which an individual produces offspring

fecundity


the probability of living from one age or time period (x) to the next

survival (sx)


proportion of newborn individuals alive at age x

survivorship (lx)


life table that follows the fate of a group of individuals born at the same time from birth to the death of the last individual

cohort life table


life table that considers the survival of individuals of known age during a single time interval

static life table


represents the number of individuals that the environment can support

carrying capacity (K)


the mathematical expression for a particular sigmoid growth curve in which the percentage rate of increase decreases in linear fashion as population size increases

logistic equation


the point at which a logistic or other sigmoid growth curve changes from its accelerating to its decelerating phase

inflection point


having an influence on the individuals in a population that varies with the degree of crowding within the population

densitydependent factors


having an influence on the individuals in a population that does not vary with the degree of crowding within a population

densityindependent factors


in populations of plants limited by space or other resources, the characteristic relationship between average plant weight and density

selfthinning curve


when the logarithm of average plant weight is plotted as a function of the logarithm of density, the data points recorded during the growing season fall on a line with a slope of approximately ____

3/2 power law


fluctuation in population size with regular intervals between high and low numbers

periodic cycles


delays in the response of birth and death rates to changes in the environment

time delays


regularly fluctuating through a fixed cycle above and below some mean value

oscillate


cycling with progressively smaller amplitude, as in some populations approaching their equilibria

damped oscillation


stable oscillations in which numbers bounce back and forth between high and low values

limit cycles


oscillations with complex, unpredictable forms caused by increasing r. erratic change in the size of populations governed by difference equations having high intrinsic rates of growth

chaos
