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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the individuals of a species within a given area
population
a subdivision within a population having restricted exchange of individuals with the remainder of the population
subpopulations
the density and spacing of individuals within a suitable habitat and the proportions of individuals in each age class
population structure
the change in ecological systems, especially applied to populations, over time because of births, deaths, and movement of individuals
dynamic behavior
the geographic range of a population or other ecological unit.
distribution
the distribution of a population in space
geographic range
the spacing of individuals in a population with respect to one another.
dispersion
distribution of individuals in discrete groups (i.e. tendency for association)
clumped distribution
distribution in which each individual maintains a minimum distance between itself and its neighbors
spaced distribution
the condition in which individuals are distributed throughout a homogeneous area without regard to the presence of others
random distribution
views a population as a set of subpopulations occupying patches of a particular habitat type, between which individuals move occasionally
metapopulation model
the intervening habitat surrounding suitable habitat patches for a particular species which is viewed only as a barrier to the movement of individuals between subpopulations
habitat matrix
a depiction of population structure (which assumes that there are differences in the quality of patches of the suitable habitat type) in which some subpopulations produce excess offspring (---) and others would decline in size without immigration (---)
source-sink model
a depiction of subpopulations in which movement between patches is influenced by the types of intervening habitats
landscape model
the number of individuals per unit of area
density
method of estimating the size of a population by the recapture of marked individuals
mark-recapture
study of populations (i.e. their age structure and growth rate)
demography
when young individuals are added to the population continuously and a plot of the population increase as a function of time forms a smooth curve
exponential growth
periodic increase or decrease in a population in which the increment is proportional to the number of individuals at the beginning of the period
geometric growth
a summary by age of the survivorship and fecundity of individuals in a population. It can be used to model the addition and removal of individuals in a local population (in the absence of immigration and emigration)
life table
the rate at which an individual produces offspring
fecundity
the probability of living from one age or time period (x) to the next
survival (sx)
proportion of newborn individuals alive at age x
survivorship (lx)
life table that follows the fate of a group of individuals born at the same time from birth to the death of the last individual
cohort life table
life table that considers the survival of individuals of known age during a single time interval
static life table
represents the number of individuals that the environment can support
carrying capacity (K)
the mathematical expression for a particular sigmoid growth curve in which the percentage rate of increase decreases in linear fashion as population size increases
logistic equation
the point at which a logistic or other sigmoid growth curve changes from its accelerating to its decelerating phase
inflection point
having an influence on the individuals in a population that varies with the degree of crowding within the population
density-dependent factors
having an influence on the individuals in a population that does not vary with the degree of crowding within a population
density-independent factors
in populations of plants limited by space or other resources, the characteristic relationship between average plant weight and density
self-thinning curve
when the logarithm of average plant weight is plotted as a function of the logarithm of density, the data points recorded during the growing season fall on a line with a slope of approximately ____
-3/2 power law
fluctuation in population size with regular intervals between high and low numbers
periodic cycles
delays in the response of birth and death rates to changes in the environment
time delays
regularly fluctuating through a fixed cycle above and below some mean value
oscillate
cycling with progressively smaller amplitude, as in some populations approaching their equilibria
damped oscillation
stable oscillations in which numbers bounce back and forth between high and low values
limit cycles
oscillations with complex, unpredictable forms caused by increasing r. erratic change in the size of populations governed by difference equations having high intrinsic rates of growth
chaos