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35 Cards in this Set

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Plant Development
The sum of all changes that progressively elaborate an organism's body.
Plant growth adn development is broken into three groups:
Growth
Morphogenesis
Differentiation
Plant growth is Indeterminate
carries on through the life of a plant.
Can be: Annuals-complete life cycle in 1 yr.
Biennials- complete life cycle in 2 yrs.
Perennials- live many years
Indeterminate growth is made possible by:
Meristems
Growth
is irreversible increase in size resulting from cell division and cell enlargement.
Starts at fertilization
Morphogenesis
the processes giving rise to body shape and organization. Begins in early divisions of embryo.
Cellular Differentiation
divergence in structure adn function as cells become specialized.
Cell division and expansion is guided by the cytoskeleton
Plant shape depends upon spatial orientations of cell divisions and cell expansions.
Orienting cell division
Orienting the plane of cell expansion: cells expand when cell wall yields to turgor pressure.
Expansins
A protein that causes cell walls to stretch.
Microtubules
dictate the direction of expansion. Also dictate orientation of cellulose microfibrils
Seeds
From seed to seedling: Initial phase: Imbibition- the absorption of water occurs readily due to the low water potential of a dry seed.
Primary Growth
Apical meristems extend roots and shoots by giving rise to the primary plant body.
Meristems
on division one cell remains called the intital meristem, and the other a derivative.
Apical Meristems: at the tip of roots and shoots, source of primary growth.
Lateral Meristems: cylinders of dividing cells extending through tissues, adds new layers to vascular tissue and thickens epidermis.
3 primary meristems
Protoderm
Procambium
Ground Meristem
Zone of cell division related to the zone of elongation.
Zone of maturation
Zone of cell division blends into the zone of elongation.
Elongation is responsible for pushing the root tip ahead. Sustains growth by adding cells to the youngest end of the zone.
Zone of maturation: bells begin to specialize in structure and function.
Protoderm
The outermost primary meristem, produces the single cell layer of the epidermis
Procambium
Produes the Stele.
It's a central cylinder of vascular tissure wher xylem and phloem develop.
Lateral Roots
Established roots may sprout Lateral Roots from outermost layer of stele or Pericycle.
Shoot apical meristem
a dome of dividing cells at the tip of the terminal bud.
Primordia
At the edges of leafs, grow to form leaves.
Axillary buds
may form branches later in development.
Secondary growth of shoots
later meristems add girth by producing 2" vascular tissue and periderm.
Vascular Cambium
produces xylem and phloem.
Also is the vascular meristem in woody stems
Cork Cambium
Produces a tough external covering for roots and stems that replaces epidermis.
Cylinder of meristematic tissue that produces protective layers that cover plant body.
Vascular Cambium exists in two forms
1. Fusiform intitals: form the Axial System
2. Ray intitals: form the Radial System.
Periderm
Phelloderm plus cork cambium plus cork cells
Bark
all tissues external to the vascular cambium. (phloem plus periderm)
Lenticels
spongy regions in cork which permit gas exchange
Hearwood
no longer conducts water but its fosrm a central column that supports the tree.
Sapwood
Functions in the upward transport of water and minerals, called the xylem sap
wood
Secondary xylem
Conifer wood
only tracheids, has resin ducts
Angiosperm wood
typically has vessels more parenchyma in rays
Dendrochronology
Tree rings tell us more than age, width of rings is related to environmental conditions v. consistent conditions, can give insight to climatic patterns
Reaction Wood
2 forms
1. In conifers: Comprssion wood
2. In angiosperms: Tension wood