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16 Cards in this Set

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Definition of SCIENTIFIC APPROACH
Objective studies of children who are thought to develop through stages or phases

Use observation & experimentation to prove thesis
Theory of cognitive development - thinking capacities go through 6 distinct stages

Criticised for experiments - not representing childs full capacities.
Westernised view of children
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH

PIAGET
Link: Child development
Theory of MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Moral judgements universal
Pass through 6 stages sequentially

Criticised for only using boys in experiments. Western bias. Based on hypothetical scenarios.
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH

KOHLBERG
Links to : knowing right from wrong
ATTACHMENT THEORY - maternal care (or mother substitute) essential for mental health of child

Criticised for basing theory on animal relationships. Contradicts cultures where shared care is the norm.
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH

BOWLBY
Links to: Family, kinship
Early Childhood Curricula
Children innately sexual - a natural part of development
Childen access their 'inner world' through play.
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH

FREUD
Links to: Childhood innocence, Play
First to use observations to study children's development (son Doddy)
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH

DARWIN
Child development
Used tests & experiements to study children's development.
Made charts of normal development.
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH

GESELL
Definition of SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH to Childhood
Study the beliefs & theories about childhood. Believe that ideas about childhood vary according to time and place.

Discourses dictate our position.
PURITAN DISCOURSE

Children innately evil. Need discipline or will become unruly.
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH

HOBBES
Link to constructions of childhood.
Literature.
Media.
Knowing right from wrong.
Socialisation/parenting
TABULA RASA - BLANK SLATE

Children neither innately evil/innocent.
Experience & environment shapes the child
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH

LOCKE
Links to: Socialisation
Knowing right from wrong
Schooling/parenting
Children innately innocent.
Childhood time of innocence, should be protected. Idealized.
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH

ROUSSEAU
Links to: Constructions of childhood, knowing right from wrong, media, socialization
Development of skills takes place through SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS between children & others. Guided participation, language & role play crucial for children to explore behaviour & feelings.

Development is not universal - depends on social & cultural context.
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST

LEV VYGOTSKY
Link: Socialization, Play, Friendships
What people 'make' of the world depends on context.

World view becomes so familiar it is mistaken for reality.
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST

STAINTON ROGERS (REX & WENDY)
Link: Childhood as a social construction
Definition of APPLIED APPROACH to Childhood
Draws on both a scientific & social constructionist approach to formulate policies & practices related to children.
Described the WELFARE & JUSTICE MODELS for dealing with children who offend.
APPLIED APPROACH

ASQUITH
Link: Bulger case
Argues that children are competent to take responsibility for their rights.
UNCRC radical document that challenges adults power.
APPLIED APPROACH

LANSDOWN
Link to: Participation, Children's rights