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106 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Ablation
surgical removal of tissue
Acetylcholine
The neurotransmitter released by neurons to activate muscles
Action Potential
The nerve impulse, which is a rapid change in electrical charge across the cell membrane
Adrenal Glands`
Endocrine glands whose hormones arouse the body, regulate salt balance, adjust the body to stress, and affect sexual functioning
Adrenaline
A hormone produced by the adrenal glands that tens, in general, to arouse the body.
Agnosia
A disturbance in the ability to percieve the meaning of stimuli, such as words, objects, or pictures
All-or-nothing event
Classifying objects or events as absolutely right or wrong, good or bad, acceptable or unacceptable
Aphasia
A speech disturbance resulting from damage to language areas on the temporal lobes of the brain
Association Cortex
All areas of the cerebral cortex that are not specifically sensory or motor in function
Autonomic
Self Governing
Autonomic system
The neural system that connects the brain with the internal organs and glands
Axon
A thin fiber that conducts information away from the cell body of a neuron
Axon Terminals
branching fibers at the end of axons
Brainstem
lowest portions of the brain, including the cerebellum, medulla, and reticular formation.
Broca's Area
a language area in the brain related to grammar and pronunciation
Central Nervous System
the brain and the spinal chord
Cerebellum
a cauliflower-shaped projection at the base of the brain that controls posture and coordination
Cerebral Cortex
layer of tissue that forms the outer layer and surface of the cerebrum, responsible for basic sensory and higher mental processes
Cerebral Hemispheres
right and left halves of the cerebrum
Cerebrum
two large hemispheres that cover the upper half of the brain
Connector Neuron
nerve cell that serves as a link between two others
Corpus Callosum
large bundles of fibers connecting the right and left cerebral hemispheres
Corticalization
an increase in the relative size of the cerebral cortex
Cranial Nerves
one of the twelve major nerves that leave the brain without leaving the spinal cord
CT Scan
computed tomography scan; a computer-enhanced x-ray image of the brain
Dendrites
fibers projecting from nerve cells that recieve information from other neurons and carry it to the cell body
Dopamine
important transmitter substance found in the brain, especially in the limbic system, an area associated with emotional response
EEG
device designed to detect, amplify, and record electrical activity in the brain; electroencyphalograph
Effector Cells
cells in muscles and glands specialized for the production of responses
Endocrine System
glands whose secretions pass directly into the bloodstream or the lymph system
Endorphins
class of chemicals produced by the pituitary gland that are similar in structure nad pain-killing effect to opiate drugs such as morphine
Enkephalins
opiate-like brain chemicals that regulate reactions to pain and stress
ESB
direct electrical stimulation and action of brain tissue
Frontal Lobes
areas at the top front of the cerebral cortex that includes sites associated with control of movement, smell, and higher mental functions
Gray Matter
areas in the nervous system that have a grayish color due to a high concentration of nerve cell bodies
Growth Hormone
hormone secreted by the pituitary gland, that promotes bodily growth
Hippocampus
structure in the brain associated with the regulation of emotions and transfer of information from short term to long term memory
Hormone
glandular secretion that affects bodily functions or behavior
Hypothalamus
small area at the base of the brain that regulates motivation and emotion (hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior)
Ion Channels
channels through the axon membrane
Limbic System
System of interconnected structures in the forebrain that are closely related with emotional response
Limbic System
system of interconnected structures in the forebrain that are closely related with emotional response
Medulla
enlarged stalk at the base of the brain that connects to the spinal cord and controls vital life functions
Metabolism
the rate at which energy is produced and expended in the body
Motor Cortex
nerve cell that carries motor commands from the central nervous system to muscles and glands
Motor Neuron
nerve cell that carries motor commands from the central nervous system to muscles and glands
MRI Scan
magnetic resonance imaging- computer enhanced three dimensional representation of the brain or body, based on body's response to magnetic field
Myelin
a fatty layer coating some axons that increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon
Nerve
bundle of neuron fibers supported by connective tissue; can be seen with unaided eye
Neuropeptides
brain chemicals that regulate the activity of neurons, thereby influencing memory, emotion, pain, hunger, ect.
Neurotransmitter
Any of a number of chemical substances secreted by neurons that alter activity in other neurons
Noradrenaline
hormone produced by the adrenal glands that tends to arouse the body, associated with anger
Norepinephrine
adrenal hormone that tends to arouse the body; associated with anger
Occipital Lobes
portion at the back of the cerebral cortex that includes areas where vision registers in the brain
Parasympathetic System
a branch of the autonomic system responsible for quieting the body and conserving energy
Parietal Lobes
area at the top of the brain that includes sites where bodily sensations register in the brain
Peripheral Nervous System
all parts of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
PET Scan
positron emission tomography; a computer-generated image of brain activity, based on glucose consumption in the brain
Pineal Gland
gland in the brain that helps regulate body rhythms and sleep cycles
Pituitary Gland
The "master gland" at the base of the brain whose hormones influence the output of other endocrine glands
Receptor Sites
areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters
Reflex Arc
The simplest behavior pattern involving only three neurons
Resting Potential
The electric charge that exists between the inside and outside of a neuron at rest
Reticular Formation
a network of fibers within the medulla associated with attention alertness and activation of higher brain areas
Sensory Neuron
A nerve cell that carries information from the senses toward the central nervous system
Soma
The main body of a neuron
Somatic System
the system of nerves linking the spinal cord with the body and sense organs
Somasensory Area
part of the parietal lobes that serves as a recieving area for bodily sensations
Spinal Nerves
one of sixty-two major nerves that channel sensory and motor information in and out of the spinal cord
Sympathetic System
a branch of the autonomic system responsible for arousing or activating the body in times of stress
Synapse
The microscopic space between an axon terminal and another neuron, and which neurotransmitters pass
Temporal Lobes
areas on each side of the cerebral cortex that include the sites where hearing registers in the brain
Thalamus
structure at the center of the brain that relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex
Thyroid Gland
Endocrine gland whose hormones help regulate metabolism (production and expenditure of energy within the body)
Wernikes Area
area of the brain related to language comprehension
White Matter
portions of the nervous system that appear white due to the presence of mycelin
Animal Model
an animal whose behavior is used to discover principles that may apply to human behavior
B.F. Skinner
studied simple behavior under carefully controlled conditions- "radical behaviorsim"
Case Study
intensive investigation of the behavior of a single person
Cognitive Psychology
The study of human thinking, knowing, understanding, and information processing
Community Psychology
use of community resources to promote mental health and treat or preent mental health problems
Correlational Study
non-experimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship between two or more events, measures, variables
Critical Thinking
ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, criticize, and synthesize information
Empiricism
gaining info by direct observation or experience
Functionalism
school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments
Gestalt Psychology
emphasized the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units
Industrial-Organizational Psychology
psychology of work and organizations especially with respect to personell selection, human relations, and management
John Watson
observed behaviorism
Natural clinical Test
An accident or other natural event that provides psychological data
Operational Definition
defining a scientific concept by stating the specific actions or procedures used to measure..
Pseudo-Psychology
any false and unspecific system of beliefs and practice that is offered as an explaination of behavior
Psychodynamic Psychology
emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconcious forces
Representative Sample
A small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population
Structuralism
analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements
Theory
system designed to interrelate concepts nad facts in a way that summarizes existing data and predicts future observation
Wilhelm Wundt
set up first psychological lab "father of psychology" and used introspection
Central Tendency
the tendency for a majority of scores to fall in the midrange of possible value
Descriptive Statistics
Used to describe and summarize numeric data
Coefficient of Correlation
A statistical index ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation
Frequency Distribution
table that divides an entire range of scores into a series of classes and then records the number of scores that fall into that class
Frequency Polygon
graph of a frequency distribution in which the number of scores falling in each class is represented by points on a line
Histogram
graph of frequency distribution in which the number of scores falling in each class is represented by vertical bars
Inferential Statistics
mathematical tools used for decision making, generalizing from small samples, and for drawing conclusions
Normal Curve
a bell-shaped curve with a large number of scores tapering to a few very high or very low scores
Percent of Variance
a portion of the total amount of variation in a group of scores
Scatter Diagram
a graph that plots the intersection of paired measures (pairs at which x and y cross)