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34 Cards in this Set

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Gamete
Haploid cell that participates in fertilization by fusing w/ another haploid cell
Binary Fission
Form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring
Gene
Section of a chromosome that codes for a protein or RNA molecule
Chromosome
Structure made of DNA and associated proteins on which genes are located
chromatid
One pair of strands of DNA that make up a chromosome during meiosis or mitosis
Centromere
Region joining 2 chromatids
Homologous Chromosome
A member of a chromosome pair, both of which are similar in shape, size, and the genes they carry
Diploid
Term used to indicate a cell containing two sets of chromosomes
Haploid
Having only one set of chromosomes
Zygote
Fertilized egg cell
Autosome
A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex
Sex Chromosome
One of a pair of chromosomes that are involved in determining the sex of an individual
Karyotype
Array of the chromosomes found in an individual's cells arranged in order of size and shape
Cell cycle
Repeating five-phase sequence of eukaryotic cell growth and division
Interphase
Period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions of a eukariotic cell during which a cell carries out routine funtioning, copies its DNA, and prepares to divide.
Mitosis
Process during cell-division in which the nucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei
Cytokenisis
Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate cells
Cancer
A disease characterized by abnormal cell growt
Spindle
Structure composed of centrioles and individuals hollow protein fibers that moves chromosomes apart during cell division
Meiosis
Process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell completes two successive divisions that produce four cells
Crossing over
the exchange of reciprocal segments of DNA by homologous chromosomes at the beginning of meiosis
Independent assortment
Random distribution of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
Spermatogenesis
Process by which male gametes are produced in male animals
Sperm
Male gamete
Oogenisis
Process by which gametes are produced in female animals
Ovum
A mature egg cell
Asexual reproduction
Reproduction that involves only one parent
clone
Organism produced by asexual reproduction that is genetically identical to its parent
sexual reproduction
Reproduction in which gametes from opposite sexes or mating types unite to form a zygote
life cycle
Entire lifespan of an organism
Fertilization
The process by which haploid gametes join to form a diploid zygote
Sporophyte
Diploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alternation of generations
Spore
An asexual, resting, reproductive haploid cell
Gametophyte
Haploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alteration of generations