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21 Cards in this Set

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vertebra
individual segment of a backbone
agnathan
earliest fish; had backbone but no jaws or paired fins
acanthodian
early fish; first to exhibit jaws
cartilage
strong, lightweight, flexible connective tissue
terrestrial
term that describes an organism witht eh ability to live on land
thecodont
extinct crocodilelike reptile from which the dinosaurs evolved
Pangaea
the single supercontinent of the triassic period that included all presently know continents
ectothermic
referring to an animal whose body temperature is determined by the temperature of the environment
endothermic
refers to an animal that gernerates its own body heat
therapsid
extinct order of reptiles thought to be endothermic that likely gave rise to mammals
gill filament
fingerlike projection from a gill where respiratory gases enter and leave the blood
gill slit
opening at the rear of a fish's cheek cavity where water exits
countercurrent flow
arrangement in fish repiratory system where water going over the gills and blood in the gill filaments flows in opposite directions
nephron
tubelike structure in the kidneys that filters wastes from the body and retains useful molecules; also regulates the bodys salt and water balances
lateral line
specialized sensory system running the length of both sides of a fish's body
Operculum
hard plate that covers the gills on each side of the head of bony fishes
Swim bladder
the gas-filled sac of bony fishes used to regulate their buoyancy
Teleost
group of bony fishes with highly mobile fins, thin scales, a swim bladder, and symmetrical tails; largest group of living fish
Lung
internal, baglike respiratory organ of a vertebrate that enables gas exchange between the air and the blood
Pulmonary vein
vessel taht carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart
septum
thick wall that divides the hearts atrium or ventricle into right and left halves