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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
organisms reproductive cells (sperm of egg)
gametes
form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring
binary fission
coiled DNA
chromosome
two exact copies of DNA that make up each chromosome
chromatids
point at which two chromatids of a choromosome are attached
centromere
chromosomes that are similar to size, shape, and genetic content
homologous chromosomes
a cell that contains one set of chromosomes
haploid
a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes
diploid
a fertilized egg cell, first cell of a new individual
zygote
chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual
autosomes
1 of 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans that contain genes that will determine the sex of and individual
sex chromosomes
photo of the chromosomes in a dividing cell that shows the chromosomes arranged by size
karyotype
repeating sequence of cellular growth and division during the life of an organism
cell cycle
the first three phases of the cell cycle where a cell spends 90% of its time
interphase
process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell is divided into two nuclei-each nucleus ends up witht the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the original cell
mitosis
process during cell division in which the cytoplasm divides
cytokenisis
uncontrolled growth of cells
cancer
cell structures made up of both centrioles and individual microtubule fibers that are involved in moving chromosomes during cell division
spindles
form of cell division that halves the number of chromosomes when forming specialized reproductive cells such as gametes or spore
meiosis
portions of a chromatid on homologous chromosome broken and exchanged witht the corresponding portions on one of the chromatids of the other homologous chromosome
crossing-over
random distribution of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
independent assortment
process by which sperm is produced in male animals
spermatogenesis
four cells changed to form and develop a tail
sperm
process by which gametes are produced in female animals
oogenesis
egg
ovum
single parent passes copies of all of its genes to each of its offspring (no fusion of haploid cells)
asexual reproduction
individual produced by asexual reproduction- an organism that is genetically identical to its parent
clone
two parents each form haploid reproductive cells which join to form offspring
sexual reproduction
entire life span in the life of an organism from one generation to the next
life cycle
process by gametes that results in diploid zygote
fertilization
diploid phase in the life cycle that produces spores
sporophyte
haloid reproductive cell produced by meiosis that is capable of developing into an adult without fusing with another cell
spore
haploid phase that produces gametes by mitosis
gametophyte