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83 Cards in this Set

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rotary-type radial engines
used during WWI because of high power to weight ratio. Cylinders are mounted radially around crankcase and rotates with propeller.
static-type radial engines
Developed in the late 20's. Much more reliable than previous designs.Significant difference is the crankcase remains stationary while the crankshaft rotates the engine
single-row radial engines
typically have an odd number of cylinders arranged around the crankcase(5-9)
multiple-row radial engines
Contain two or more rows of cylinders connected to a single crankshaft.
double-row radial endines
...typically has 14 or 18 cylinders Cooling air flow is increased by staggering the pattern.
V-type engines
Developed during WWII. Achieved the higest hp rating. It has two banks of cylinders angled at 45, 60,or 90 degrees apart. Most have 8 or 12 cylinders.
cylinder pad
surface on which a cylinder mounts to the crankcase.
nose section
is mounted at the front of a radialengine crankcase and bolts directly to the power section
power section
the second section of a radial engine of a radial engine crankcase. It absorbs the stresses from the crankshaft and cylinders.
supercharger section
located directly behind the power section, it is a section that houses a device that compresses air for the engine's cylindrers, enabling the engine to produce more power.
accessory section
Usually cast in one or two pieces in aluminum alloy or magnesium. Houses accessories such as magnetos, carburetors, pumps, starters, and generators
main bearing journals
The centerline of the crankshaft runs through these journals which support the crankshaft as it rotates. absorbs and transmits stresses from the shaft to the case.
crankpins
also known as throws, crank throws and connecting rod journals...offset from the main bearing journals, they provide an attachment point for connecting rods.
throws
also known as crankpins, crank throws and connecting rod journals...offset from the main bearing journals, they provide an attachment point for connecting rods.
crank throws
also known as crank pins throws, and connecting rod journals...offset from the main bearing journals, they provide an attachment point for connecting rods.
connecting rod bearing journals
also known as crankpins, throws, crank throws...offset from the main bearing journals, they provide an attachment point for connecting rods.
sludge
dirt carbom deposits and other foreign material.
counterweights
used to balance the crankshaft
static balance
when the weight of the assembly is balanced around its axis of rotation on balancing block test stands
dynamic balance
when centrfugal forces and power pulses are balanced with counter weights
dynamic damper
counter weight that is fastened to the crankshaft on the crank cheek...dynamic dampers oscillate with pulse from the firing cylinder to absorb some of the force.
single throw crankshaft
aka the 360 crankshaft, it is the simplest type of crankshaft...consists of a single crankpin and two crank cheeks
two-throw crankshaft
twin-row radial engines require this crankshaft... set 180 degrees apart. two cylinder opposed engines uncommonly use two throw crankshaft
four-throw crankshaft
Used on four cylinder opposed engines...two throws set 180 degrees apart...has either three or five main bearings
six-throw crankshaft
Used on six cylinder opposed and in-lines and 12 cylinder V-type engines...has four bearings six throws 60 degrees apart.
busnings
smaller bearings used to support various accessory drive shafts.
bearing retainer
keeps the ball or rollers to the ball bearings in place
bearing races
provides smooth surface for balls or rollers to roll over.
straight roller bearings
Are suitable when the bearings are subjected to radial loads only.
tapered roller bearings
cone-shaped inner and outer races that enable the bearing to withstand radial and thrust loads
crankpin end
the crankshaft end of the connecting rod
piston end
the piston end of the connecting rod
master rod
the main rod in a master and articulated piston-rod assembly
articulated rods
rods in a master-articulated rod assembly that are driven by the master rod asembly.
piston pin bearing
a bearing pressed into the piston end of the connecting roe which reduces friction at the connection between the piston head and the connecting rod
crankpin bearing
a bearing pressed into the crankshaft end of the connecting rod which reduces friction between the crankpin and
master rod bearing
same as "crankpin bearing"
one-piece rod
used on multi-piece crankshafts
multiple-piece master rod
used on single piece crankshafts
split-type master rod
same as "multiple-piece master rod"
knuckle pin
hinged between the master rod and the articulating rod
(pressed in)
full-floating knuckle pins
hinged between the master rod and the articulating rod (loosely held in place often by lock plates.
fork connecting rod
used on v-type engines,the part of the fork and blade rod assmebly that splits/forks at the crankshaft.
blade connecting rod
used in V-type engines... the blade(flat) component of the fork and black rod assembly that fits between the prongs of the fork component.
ring grooves
grooves machined into side of the piston
ring land
portion between the ring grooves.
piston head
top surface of the piston
piston pin boss
hole in the piston for the piston pin that allows one to connect the piston to the connecting rod
piston skirt
an extension at the base of the piston use to help align the piston with the cylinder
cam-ground piston
an very slight oval shapeness of the piston that compensates for the differential expansion of the cylinder as it gets hotter.
blow-by
when combustion gases leak past the piston rings into the crankcase resulting in loss of power and increased oil consumption.
seated
a ring the matches its cylinder
compression rings
located in the ring grooves just below the piston head
oil rings
control the amount of oil applied to the cylinder walls and prevent oil from entering the combustion chamber.
oil control rings
placed in piston ring grooves placed below the compression rings with the primary purpose of regulating the thickness of the oil film on a cylinder wall.
ventilated oil control rings
through small slots machined around the ring, excess oil can return to the engine sump .
oil scraper/ wiper ring
regulates the amount of oil that passes between the poston skirt and the cylinder wall...(is beveled and located at the bottom of the cylinder).
piston/ wrist pin
joins the piston to the connecting rod
stationary piston pins
secured to the piston by a setscrew that prevents rotation.
semifloatin poston
pins are loosely attached to the connecting rod by clamping arounf a reduced-diameter section of the pin
full-floating pins
rotate freely in both the connecting rod and the piston; these pins are used in most modern aircraft engines
circlet
snap-ring (used on earlier piston engines) that fits into the piston boss to hold piston pin in place
spring ring
spring ring (used on earlier piston engines) that fits into the piston boss to hold piston pin in place.
piston-plug
the current practice of holding piston pin in place by inserting plugs on each end of the piston
(cylinder) skirt
the end of the cylinder barrel that projects into the crankcase
mounting flange
used to attach the cylinder to the crankcase.
cooling fins
thin projection on the exterior of cylinder walls that create deep grooves used to cool the cylinder.
cylinder bore
the inside of a cylinder
choke bore cylinder
a slightly tapered cylinder with the diameter at the top of the cylinder smaller than the skirt.
nitriding
hardening method that changes the surface strength of steel by infusing the metal with a hardening agent. disadvantage -is it is suseptical to corrosion identified by blue stripe.
chrome/ electro-plating
hardening method of applying a thin coating of chromium to the inside of the barrel. advantage- less susceptible to corrosion and wears longer, disadvantage-cylinder does not hold oil well.
chrome channeling
process to compensate for the disadvantage of chrome-plating. A reverse current applied to the cylinder creates microscopic cracks that can hold oil in the cylinder wall
CermiCrome, Nu-Crome
discontinued plating process that mechanically impregnates silicone particles into the cylinder wall.
CermiNil™, Nickel+Carbide™, or Nikasil®
plating process that uses nickle (rather than chromium) infused with silicon carbide particles to increase hardness and retain lube oil
Heli-Coil® inserts
made of stainless steal, they are heat shrunk and screwed into cylinder head to facilitate the installation and removal of spark plugs
intake valve
controls the amount of fuel/ air mixture that enters through the intake port
exhaust valve
lets the exhaust gases exit the cylinder through the exhaust port.
poppet valve
the most common type of valve used in aircraft engines
flat-headed head, semi-tulip head, tulip head, mushroom head
has a flat, semi-concaved, concaved, and convexed head.
Stelite®
an alloy of cobalt and chromium that is welded to the valve face for durability
valve stem and tip
keeps the valve head properly aligned as it opens and closes; the tip is hardened to withstand hammering
rotator cap
is placed over the valve tip to increase service life.
split key
keeps the valve-spring retaining washers in place and holds the valve in the cylinder head