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60 Cards in this Set

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type of government under czars?
autocracy (like absolute monarchy)
Tsar/Czar Alexander 2
freed serfs

"Tsar Emancipator"/"Czar Liberator"
Tsar/Czar Alexander 3
a harsh ruler (saw his dad's more easygoing attitude- and his dad was assasinated)
What is Russification?
antimulticulturalism, especially against the Jews
Jews were attacked in events called pogroms
Alexander 3 and the zemstvos
took power from the local councils that his dad had created
Tsar/Czar Nicholas 2
eventually abdicated and ended the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty
one factor contributing to Nicholas's downfall
the Russian failure in the Russo-Japanese War
another factor contributing to Nicholas's downfall
Bloody Sunday- where protestors were shot at
what did Nicholas do for the government?
he allowed a national duma, or legislature (like a Parliament), but proposed that it serve as an advisory council rather than a genuine legislative body
What did the October Manifesto do?
granted civil rights to citizens and alllowed the duma to make laws, which in theory made Russia a consitutional monarchy, but in practice Nicholas kept his powers
What happened during the March Revolution?
Czar Nicholas 2 abdicated the throne for himself and his son Alexei, ending the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty
Who was Grigori Rasputin?
a mystic healer that Czarina Alexandra relied upon to ease her son's pain due to hemophilia
What type of government was set up after Nicholas and Alexei abdicated?
a provisional (temporary) government
Who was the provisional government's leader?
Alexander Kerensky
What was the provisional government's big mistake that ultimately led to its downfall?
failing to pull out of World War 1
What did Lenin see because of the provisional government?
an opportunity to come back from exile and take over the Russian government
What happened during the November Revolution?
the Bolsheviks take over the national government
What happened after the Bolsheviks took over?
a Civil War broke out in Russia
Who was on which side during the Russian Civil War?
the civil war was between the Reds (the Bolsheviks) and the Whites (thier Russian opponents and members of the Allied forces)
On which side does the United States enter Russia's civil war?
On the side of the Whites, against the Reds (the Bolsheviks)
What was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
It was a peace treaty with Germany, resulting in the loss of much western territory and a third of the population
What was the economic system under Vladimir Ilyich Lenin?
The USSR was mostly a communist state, but due to the NEP(New Economic Plan), there was some capitalism as well- the NEP permitted small manufacturers and farmers to own their own businesses and to sell what they produced for a profit
What was the international society of Communists called?
the Comintern (Communist International)
Some advantages of Lenin over Stalin
Lenin was less authoritarian, didn't commit purges (removal of opposing leaders from power), and didn't rule with the people afraid of him, as Stalin (man of steel) did
non-Russian nationalities in the USSR
Lenin gave each major nationality its own republic with its own bureaucracy, however, the central gov. in Moscow still made the important decisions for these republics
Trotsky and Stalin's views about the USSR's path
Trotsky, like Lenin, believed that communism should spread all over the world and then it could truly build an ideal Soviet Union, but Stalin thought it was necessary for the Soviet Union to build and strengthen before spreading around the world
Stalin's 5-Year-Plans
a program that set economic goals for a 5-year period, it brought all industrial and agricultural production under gov. control and provided for housing, health care, and other services
collectivization
a system of farming where the government owns the land and use peasants to farm it. the kulaks (wealthy peasants) resisted collectivization
Socialist Realism in the arts
writers and artists created a "new reality" and glorified Soviet heroes and achievements, denouncing negative rumors; artists who violated these dictates faced exile or imprisonment in labor camps
Stalin and the Comintern
initially gave it low priority, then took it more seriously and dissolved it in 1943 to win favor and approval of the Allies in World War Two
What's bad about credit?
People bought too much stuff on credit and didn't have enough money to pay the credit back
What were the factories?
overproducing goods when there was a slow demand for them
What does Roosevelt do?
through his New Deal (public works) program, he is credited with eventually pulling the U.S. out of the Great Depression
What is the Kellog-Briand Pact?
a pact which denounced war as a means of settling disputes; eventually almost all nations signed it but didn't follow through with it (it had no powers of enforcement after all)
Lakarno
agreements to try to maintain peace
What line did France build?
The Maignot Line between France and Germany to try to keep Germany out (left the Belgian border unguarded- stupid move)
What was the British Labour Party like at the beginning?
it supported many Socialist policies, but once in power they often tempered many of their radical demands
When did Ireland split?
In the 1920s and the 1930s; the Catholic Irish Free State(eventually Eire) and Protestant Northern Ireland
What did Great Britain's workers do?
They went on a general strike on May 4, 1926
The Popular Front in France
A Socialist party that had power for approximately 1 year
What did Benito Mussolini found?
Fascism
What is fascism?
It gives the state absolute authority but it also defends private property and the class structure. It is an extreme form of nationalism.
What about the King of Italy?
He was still in power, but as a figurehead (kind of like England- Queen Elizabeth is the figurehead power, but Tony Blair has the real power)
What were Mussolini's followers called?
The Blackshirts
How did the Fascists gain power?
by a March on Rome, which caused the cabinet to back down and resign; King Victor Emmanuel 3 named Mussolini prime minister.
What kind of a state was Italy?
a corporate state, it was hoped that workers and employers would be brought together under this state with syndicates -corporations of workers and employers that helped advise the government
What economic problem did the Weimar Republic face?
heavy inflation (ex. 4 trillion marks to $1) and inability to pay the debts that the Treaty of Versailles demanded of Germany towards the victorious countries
Munich Beer Hall Putsch
the revolution that Hitler attempted at a beer hall failed when he was arrested and thrown in jail
Kristallnacht
November 9 and 10, 1938
Nazis attacked Jews on the streets and vandalized Jewish businesses, homes, and synagogues
Nuremberg Laws
laws that stripped Jews of their German citizenship and their right to hold public office and barred Jewish students from schools and destroyed Jewish businesses
Night of Long Knives
June 30, 1934
Hitler had hundreds of Brownshirts and thier leaders shot
Der Fuhrer
The Leader -the title that Hitler took for himself
Third Reich
the Third Empire- Hitler boasted that it would last for 1,000 years, it actually lasted less than 20 years
Treaty of Versailles requirements
Hitler ignored rules about military buildups and debt repayments
the arts
Hitler brought them under his control and imposed his own ideas on the arts -consequently, many great artists and scientists fled Germany
Night of Long Knives
June 30, 1934
Hitler had hundreds of Brownshirts and thier leaders shot
Der Fuhrer
The Leader -the title that Hitler took for himself
Third Reich
the Third Empire- Hitler boasted that it would less for 1,000 years, it actually lasted less than 20 years
Treaty of Versailles requirements
Hitler ignored rules about military buildups and debt repayments
the arts
Hitler brought them under his control and imposed his own ideas on the arts -consequently, many great artists and scientists fled Germany