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19 Cards in this Set

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Substance Dualism
two kinds of substance in the world that everything is made of; includes Cartesian (Interactionist) and Popular Substance Dualisms
Dualism
states that there are two kinds of things in the world: mental and physical aspects
Cartesian (Interactionist) Dualism
type of Substance Dualism; Mental stuff does not take up space; pineal gland cited by Descartes as the pt of contact between mind and body; not a scientific claim (this claim put psychology outside of the science world)
Popular Dualism
type of Substance Dualism; Mental stuff does take up space and therefore can interact with physical stuff; common perspective of religion and 'ghosts'
Property Dualism
asserts that all stuff in the world is the same but this stuff can have different properties (mental and physical PROPERTIES); i.e. the brain has physical properties like weight but also has non-physical properties
Emergent Dualism
type of Property Dualism; includes both epiphenomenalism and interactionist property dualism
Fundamental Dualism
type of Property Dualism; includes elemental property dualism
Epiphenomenalism
type of Property Dualism, Emergent; mental properties emerge from the physical properties when the physical matter is complicated enough (these are emerging properties); mental properties do not affect physical states; feelings do not cause behavior; B.F.Skinner believed that behavior happens due to what happened in the past and the feeling just coincides with behavior
Interactionism
type of Property Dualism, Emergent; physical properties have emergent mental properties and these mental properties can affect physical properties/behavior; Freudian belief
Elemental
type of Property Dualism, Fundamental; mental and physical properties are both fundamental to everything; problematic as this claims that pencils have mental properties but mental processes only appear in highly organized systems
Arguments on Dualism: PROs
Pros: Religious Belief (soul is separate from body...not in the realm of science), Introspection (what seems may not be a good explanation), Irreducibility (mental properties may not be able to be reduced to physical properties), Parapsychology (E.S.P. is credible in anyway)
Arguments on Dualism: CONs
Cons: Parisomy (favors all phenomena being one substance), Explanatory Impotence (mental processes may be unexplicable so how can one try), Neural Dependence (mental events have been shown to be physical in the brain), Evolution (life has always been about matter without extraneous mental properties)
Monism
considers only one thing in the world
Idealism
type of Monism; everything is ideas, mental; all one can know about are sensation and experiences
Materialism
type of Monism; everything is matter; includes three perspectives: philosophical behaviorism, reductionism (identity theory), functionalism
Philosophical Behaviorism
type of Monism, Materialism; [logical positivism- verification through science is the only way anything works], considers mental states to be shorthand for describing observable beahaviors (like faking a headache); qualia is a part of an experience that cannot be observed so this shows that this concept is logically weak
Reductive Materialism (Identity Theory)
type of Monism, Materialism; [embraced by neuroscientists]; every mental state is identical to some brain state; this has the ability to relate psychology to physical sciences like physics
Issue of Intentionality
concerning brain states; mental states are about something not just a thought so brain states are perhaps just something assigned to a mental state as a symbol
Functionalism
mental states are defined as relations to environmental causes, relations to other mental states, and relations to behavioral consequences; mental states are defined by how they play into the cognitive system as a whole; relates to a token identity which allows for mental states to be had in animals, martians, computers, etc.