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30 Cards in this Set

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What is the general reaction of glucose catabolism?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
How is energy stored in ATP?
ATP, Adenosine Triphosphate, stores energy in the covalent bonds between the phosphate groups.
How much energy is released during the hydrolysis of one mole of ATP?
7 kcal/mole
What are some energy carriers during metabolism?
ATP, NAD+, NADP+, FAD
What is the general glycolysis reaction?
Glucose + 2ADP + 2 Pi + 2NAD+ ---> 2Pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H2 + 2H2O
How many PGAL molecules are produced in the process of glycolysis?
2 - PGAL and Dihydroxyacetone phosphate which isomerizes to PGAL
substrate level phosphorylation
2 molecules of ATP are used and 4 are produced with a net of 2 molecules of ATP per glucose molecule
What happens after glycolysis during anaerobic conditions?
Fermentation
How many molecules of NADH are produced in glycolysis?
2
What is fermentation?
Pyruvate being reduced to ethanol or lactic acid
How many molecules of ATP are produced from each glucose during glycolysis?
2 ATP
What is the intermediate and product of fermentation in yeast and some bacteria?
pyruvate ---> acetaldehyde ---> ethanol

decarboxylated
NADH oxidized to becone NAD+
What is the product of fermentation in certain fungi and some bacteria and also in muscle cells during strenuous exercise?
Lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate reduced to lactic acid.

NADH is oxidized to NAD+, used for glycolysis again
Lactic acid results
What are the 3 stages of cellular respiration?
Pyruvate decarboxylation, citric acid cycle, electrion transport chain
Where does cellular respiration occur?
mitochondrial matrix
Where does glycolysis occur?
In the cytoplasm.
What happens during pyruvate decarboxylation?
Pyr (3C) + Coenzyme A ---> Acetyl CoA (2C)

* NAD+ is reduced here
Citric Acid Cycle products?
6 NADH
6 FADH2
2 ATP
What are the products of the the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the Krebs cycle?
2 ATP
8 NADH (6 from Krebs)
2 FADH2
6CO2
per glucose molecule
What is produced from the oxidation of pyruvate? What is the resultant molecule?
2 NADH
2 CO2

result is Acetyl CoA
What are the products of the Krebs Cycle?
6 NADH (3 per Acetyl CoA)
2 FADH2 (1 per Acetyl CoA)
2 ATP (1 per Acetyl CoA)
4 CO2 (2 per Acetyl CoA)
What is the goal of the electron transport chain (ETP)?
To break down NADH and FADH2, pumping H+ into the outer compartment of the mitochondria, create a gradient which is used to produce ATP.
Where does the krebs cycle occur?
Mitochondria
How many ATPs are typically produced by the electron transport chain?
32 ATPs
Which enzyme is involved in the production of ATP during the ETP?
ATP synthase - as H+ moves down its concentration gradient back into the mitochondrial matrix, ADP --> ATP.
How many ATP molecules are produced during aerobic respiration?
36 total.
What is the goal of anaerobic respiration and where does it take place?
To reduce pyruvate, thus generating NAD+. It takes place in the cytoplasm.
What is the general process of fermentation?
Glucose --> 2 pyruvate --> 2 acetaldehyde + 2 CO2 --> 2 ethanol
What is the goal of fermentation?
To convert NADH to NAD+
How much energy is recovered from aerobic respiration?
39%
Glucose = 686 kcal/mol
36 ATP = 270 kcal/mol