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25 Cards in this Set

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What is the net reaction of photosyntheis?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy > C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Where is ATP's energy stored?
Covalent bonds of phosphate groups aka high energy bonds
In general, NAD+, NADP+ and FAD are all ___________ during catabolic processes
Reduced
In general, NADH, NADPH and FADH2 are all oxidized during ____________ processes
anabolic
Approximately ____ kcal of energy are released per mole of ATP
7
NAD+, NADP+ and FAD are _____________ agents because they undergo reduction.
Oxidizing Agents
NADH, NADPH, and FADH2 all behave as oxidizing/reducing agents
Reducing agents and they themselves are oxidized
Where does glycolysis occur?
Cytoplasm
What is the net reaction for glycolysis?
Glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ > 2Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2 H2O
Pyruvate is reduced under anaerobic conditions via ____________ and reduced under aerobic conditions via _______________
Fermentation/Cell Respiration
Fermentation produces ___ ATP per glucose.
2 ATP
How is NAD+ regenerated in alcohol fermentation?
The pyruvate is decarboxylated to become acetaldehyde which is then reduced by NADH to yield ethanol
What are the 3 Stages of Cell Respiration?
1. Pyruvate decarboxylation
2. TCA Cycle
3. Electron Transport Chain
Pyruvate Decarboxylation occurs where?
Mitochondrial Matrix
For each turn of the TCA __ ATP are produced by substrate level phosphorlation via a ____ intermediate.
1/GTP
Net Reaction for citric acid cycle
2Acetyl CoA + 6NAD+ + 2FAD + 2GDP + 2Pi + 4H2O > 4CO2 +6NADH + 2FADH2 + 2ATP + 4H+ + 2CoA
The electron transport chain occurs where?
Inner Mitochondrial Matrix
NADH = ____ ATP
3
FADH2 = ____ ATP
2
What are 3 alternate energy sources?
1. Carbohydrates
2. Fats
3. Proteins
Each turn of the TCA yields ___ NADH and ___ FADH2 for a total of ___ NADH and ____ FADH2.
3 NADH / 1 FADH2 / 6 NADH / 2 FADH2
What are the events involved in substrate level phosphorylation and how many ATP are produced?
It is the degradation of 1 glucose to 2 ATP from glycolysis 1 ATP from each turn of the TCA making 4 ATP total.
How many ATP are produced in eukaryotes per glucose?
36
Fatty acids enter the degradative pathway in the form of...
Acetyl CoA. They are taken through a series of beta oxidation cycles that convert it into two carbon fragments, which are then converted into Acetyl CoA.
What is transamination?
when an amino acid loses an amino group to form an alpha keto acid.