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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the norms, customs, and beliefs that help citizens understand appropriate ways to act in a political system: also, the shared attitudes about how government should operate
political culture
divisions in society that seperate people into groups
crosscuting cleavages
an informal, nonscientific survey to measure public opinion; commonly used by political activists to gauge the opinion of a group
straw poll
surveys of voters leaving polling, used by news media to guage how candidates are doing on election day
exit polls
selection procedure in which each member of the target population has a known or an equal chance of being selected
probability sample
a probability sample in which the population under study is divided into categories (stratum) that are thought to be important in influencing opinions. then a random sample is drawn from within each stratum
stratified sample
the idea that the media should consider the overall needs of the society when making decisions about what stories to cover and in what manner
social responsibility
featuring specific stories in the media to focus attention on particuar issues
agenda setting
FCC rule that requires offering equal airtime in the broad cast media for all major candidatess competing for a political office
equal time ruling
the prohibition of slavery
an armed uprising in western massachusets in 1786 and 1787 by small farmers angered by high debt and tax burdens
shay's rebellion
forbidding the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages. imposed by the 18th ammendment in 1920 and repealed by the twenty first ammendment in 1933
federal civil rights legislation that prohibits discrimination in employment based on race, national origin, religion, sex, or physical condition
title VII of the civil rights act of 1964
the fact that public goods can be enjoyed by everyone, including people who do not pay their fair share of the cost of providing those public goods
free-rider problem
activities directed at the general public to raise awareness and interest to pressure officials
outside lobbying
appealing directly to lawmakers and legislative staff either in meetings, by providing research and information, or by testifying at committee hearings
inside lobbying
insurance, training, and discounts are examples of:
material benefits
device for selecting the president and vice president, defined in article 11 of the constitution
electoral college
also called a ballot measure, initiative, or proposition; when voters are called upon to accept or reject a proposed piece of legislation
groups organized under section 527 of the internal revenue code, which allows for the unlimited expenditure of campaign money. these organizations became important after the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act outlawed soft money in 2002
527 organizations
a model based on the theoty that parties have three related elements: party-in-government, party-in-the-electorate, and party-as-organization
tripartite view of parties
voters who cast ballots for candidates of different parties in a given election
split-ticket voters
an act of congress in 1854 that allowed residents of the new territories in the west to decide whether slavery would be permitted in their state
kansas-nebraska bill
introduced in1883, an approach to managing the bureaucracy whereby people are appointed to government positions on the basis of either competitive examinations or special qualifications, such as professional training
merit system
after 1960, a period when candidates began to portray themselves as independent from party politics, even though they often ran under a party banner
candidate-centered era
a system in which two major political parties compete for control of the government
two-party model
the pracrice, employed by 48 states, of awarding all of a states electoral college votes to the candidate for the presidency who receives the greatest number of popular votes in the state
unit rule
primary election process in which voters are allowed to cast ballots in the primary election without declaring which party they are voting for
open primary system
raising money and attracting media attnetion early in the election process, usually before the primary election year
invisible primary
a meeting of party activists to choose delegates to support candidates at their party's presidential nominating convention
nomination caucus
a reform panel established in 1968 by the democrats to make the presidential nomination process more democratic
McGovern-Fraser Commission
a group of like-minded individuals who band together to influence public policy, public opinion, or gov officials
interest group
a change to the consitution that required a seperate vote tally in the elctoral college for president and vice president
12th ammendement (1804)
a change to the constitution that abolished slavery
13th ammendment (1865)
a change to the constituion that defines the meaning of U.S. citizenship and establishes that each state must guarantee equal protection of the laws to its citizens
14th ammendment (1868)
a change to the constitution that guarantees that the right to vote shall not be denied to anyone on the basis of race
15th ammendment(1870)
a change to the constitution that granted the right to vote to women
19th ammendment ((1920)
a change to the constitution that eliminated the poll tax
24th ammendment (1964)
a change to the constitution that granted 18 year-old citizens the right to vote
26th ammendment (1971)