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54 Cards in this Set

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ikaiā
active
iʻoa mauli
proper noun
Names like Leilani, Kimo, Alohalani
iʻoa paku
place name
Names like Honolulu, Oʻahu, Waikīkī, Mākaha
hamani
transitive verb (e.g. hana, haʻawi, kiʻi, etc.)
This verb transfers an action or an object to someone or something else - its meaning is incomplete without a direct object.

Ua haʻawi au i ka puke iā Kimo.
hehele
intransitive verb (e.g. hele, komo)
This verb doesn't take a direct object. It is not an action that is done to something or someone else.

Ua hele au i ke kula i kēia kakahiaka.
helukahi
singular
helulua
dual
helunui
plural
hoaakāka
appositive
An appositive is a noun or pronoun, often with modifers, set beside another noun or pronoun to explain or identify it.

Example: Your friend Kimo is in trouble.
The insect, a cockroach, crawled across the table.
The insect, an ugly cockroach, crawled across the table.
The insect, an ugly, hairy-legged cockroach that has spied my bowl of Frosted Flakes, is crawling across the kitchen table.

In these three examples "a cockroach", "an ugly cockroach", and "an ugly, hairy-legged cockroach that has spied my bowl of Frosty Flakes" are appositives...
hune kiʻa
nominalizing particle (ʻana)
Nominalization allows for the use of a verb in a noun phrase.
It can happen in English as well in Hawaiian:
I enjoy his singing.
When cutting up a chicken, try to find the joints.
Quite often the translation from English to Hawaiian requires a change from an English verb phrase to a Hawaiian noun phrase:
She is crying because she [fell over] VP
Ke uē nei ʻo ia no [kona hina ʻana] NP
When they [saw] VP the plane, they left the restaurant.
I [ko lākou ʻike ʻana] NP i ka mokulele, ua haʻalele lākou i ka hale ʻaina.
hune kuhi
directional (mai, aku, aʻe, iho)
This one is tricky. English speaker "eat up or drink up", while Hawaiian speakers "eat down or drink down" - ʻai iho, inu iho.
hune ʻaʻau
particles (intensifers/dubitative)

nō, kā, lā, naʻe, hoʻi, hā, kau, anei, paha, ē
You can say something is very good directly by saying "maikaʻi loa", or indirectly, by saying "maikaʻi nō"...
hune ʻiae
passive marker (ʻia)
Note the difference between these two examples:
Ua hānau au. I gave birth.
Ua hānau ʻia au. I was born (given birth to).
kāhulu
modifying usage
kāhulu pepeke
relative clause
kālele kūlana
situation emphatic
kālele ʻākena
agent emphatic
kaʻi
articles, demonstratives, contractions (e.g. ka, nā, kekahi, kēlā, kēia, koʻu, etc.)
kiʻa
nominal usage
kiʻa hopunaʻōlelo
derived nominal (ka hana ʻana)
kiʻa huaʻōlelo
true nominal (ka hana)
kikino
common noun
kinoʻā
"a" class possession
kinoʻō
"o" class possession
kūhoa
speaker (inclusive)
kūnā
addressee
kūlā
3rd person
kūnei
speaker (exclusive)
lauka
object
māka painu
verb marker (ua, e...nei, e...ana, ke...nei, etc.)
māka piko
subject marker (ʻo)
māka poʻo
predicate marker (ʻo, he)
memeʻa
content word (hamani, hehele, ʻaʻano, kikino) NOT something like inahea, ahea, etc.
nonoʻa
n-possessive (no/na)
painu
verbal usage
pepeke henua
existential sentence (aia/eia) or locative sentence
Eia kekahi ʻikeoma, "Aia nō ia iā ʻoe."
Here is an idiom, "It's up to you."
Eia kā Keola ʻeke kālā ma ka papahele.
Here's Keola's wallet on the floor.
Aia koʻu hale ma uka iki aku o ke alaloa.
My house is slightly upland of the freeway.
Aia kaʻu kī iā Lilinoe. Lilinow has my key.
Eia kāu kī ma ʻaneʻi. Here are your keys.
pepeke painu
verbal sentence
Ua hele au i ka hale kūʻai i kēia kakahiaka.
pepeke ʻaike "he"
equational sentence with "he" as the predicate marker
He mokupuni ʻo Maui. Maui is an island.
He kāne ʻo Kimo. Kimo is a man.
He wahine au. I am a woman.
pepeke ʻaike "ʻo"
equational sentence with "ʻo" as the predicate marker.
ʻO wai kēlā wahine? Who is that woman?
ʻO Leilani kēlā. That's Leilani.
ʻO Mākaha koʻu one hānau. Mākaha is my birthplace (birth sands)
ʻO wai kou inoa? What is your name?

piko
subject
poʻo
predicate
poʻolua
double predicate
ʻākena
agent
ʻami
particle marking grammatical function
ʻami henua
locational phrase marker (i/ma)
ʻami hoa
preposition (me)
ʻami kūmua
preposition (mai)
Mai hea mai ʻoe? Where did you come from (just now, before this)
ʻami lauka
object marker (i/iā)
i ke kula, iā Kimo
ʻami nonoʻa
preposition (no/na)
ʻami ʻākena ʻiae
agentive marker (e)
Ua hāpai ʻia au e koʻu kupunawahine.
I was raised by my grandmother.
ʻami ʻākena ʻaʻano
causative marker "i"
ʻawe
phrase
Ua hele au i ke kula
Ua =māka painu
Ua hele = poʻo
au = piko
i ke kula = ʻawe
ʻaʻano
stative verb (e.g. pau)
Stative verbs are a result, a condition that has been reached: hauʻoli, kaumaha, moʻa, make, etc.
ʻiae
passive
Normally only hamani can be made passive, but there are exceptions, sometimes manāleo will make such ʻaʻano as make passive: make ʻia.