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164 Cards in this Set

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Where does the energy of food originally come from?
sunlight
___ percent of the sunlight energy is used for life processes.
1
Organisms that make their own food are called __________.
autotrophs
Name two ways autotrophs make their own food.
1. chemosynthesis
2. photosynthesis
_______ are organisms that obtain energy from the food they eat.
heterotrophs
Name some autotrophs.
algae, bacteria, plants
Name some heterotrophs.
fungi, protsis, decomposers, bacteria, and animals
What is one of the principal chemical compounds that cells use to store energy?
ATP
What does ATP stand for?
adensine diphosphate
The two pentagon shaped figures grouped together in an ATP are ____________.
adenine
The one center pentagon shaped figure in ATP is called ____________.
ribose
The three circle P's in ATP are called ___________.
3 phosphate group
The weakest bond in ATP is the __________. When broken, it makes ______________.
third phosphate bond
ADP
When a cell has energy available, how can it store small amounts of that energy?
by adding a phosphate group to a ADP molecule, forming ATP
When the energy stored in ATP released?
when chemical bonds between the second and third phosphate are broken
For what purpose do the characteristics of ATP make it exceptionally useful to all types of cells?
1. CAN NOT STORE easily
2. CAN release easily
3. weak third phosphate bond is easy to break
What are the three ways in which cells use the energy provided by ATP?
1. carry out active transport
2. synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids
3. responses to chemical signals at the cell surface
Why is it efficient for cells to keep only a small supply of ATP on hand?
because other substances, such as glucose, store more chemical energy and ATP is unstable
Cells get teh energy to regenerate ATP from ___________.
foods like glucose
Energy is either stored in _______ or ____________.
glucose
fat
What occurs in the process of photosynthesis?
plats convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy chemical carbohydrates
Sunlights are _________ waves.
radiant
What did Helmont conclude from his experiment?
most of weight gained came from water during photosynthesis
Priestly concluded that _________ was produced by a plant.
oxygen
What did Ingenhousz show?
that light is necessary for plants to produce oxygen
What is the formula for photosynthesis?
6CO(2)+6H(2)O+sunlight <chlorophyll> C(6)H(12)O(6)+6O(2)
What does photosynthesis do? In what?
store energy
glucose
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high energy __________.
glucose
What does photosyntehsis require, in addition to water and carbon dioxide?
sunlight and chlorophyll
What is the chemical formula for cellular respiration?
C(6)H(12)O(6)+6O(2)<>6CO(2)+6H(2)O+36 ATP
Plants gather the sun's energy with light absorbing molecules called ____________.
pigments
What is the principal pigment of plants?
chlorophyll
Longer wavelength = ________
Shorter wavelength = ________
slower
faster
Chlorophyll absorbs _______ and __________ very well.
blue-violet
red
Name the visible light spectrum in order.
roy g biv
What colors are not absorbed well by chlorophyll?
green, yellow, orange
Chloroplasts contain saclike photosynthetic membranes called __________.
thylakoids
What is a granum?
stacks of thylakoids
The region outside the thylakoid membranes in the chloroplasts is called the ___________.
stroma
What are the two stages of photosynthesis called ?
1. sunlight dependenet reaction
2. Calvin cycle reaction
What are the reactants of the light dependent reactions?
sunlight and H(2)O
What is the waste product of light dependent reactions?
O(2)
Were does the light dependent reactions and the Calvin Cycle take place?
mitochondria
What is the reactant of the Calvin cycle?
CO(2) carbon dioxide
What are the products of the Calvin cycle?
glucose and oxygen
When sunlight excites electrons in chlorophyll, how do the electrons change?
they gain a great deal of energy
What is a carrier molecule?
a compound that transfers electrons to another molecule
Name two molecules involved in photosynthesis.
NADP+
+ATP
How does NADP+ become NADPH?
by gaining 2 high energy electrons along with a hydrogen atom
Light dependent reactions convert ADP into _________.
ATP
Light dependent reactions produce __________.
oxygen gas
Light dependent reactions convert _________ into NADPH.
NADP+
Where do light dependent reactions take place?
thylakoid membrane
High energy electons move through the electron transport chain from photosystem ____ to photosystem ____.
II
I
The difference in charges across the thylakoid membrane provides the energy to make _____.
ATP
How does ATP sythase produce ATP?
ATP+phosphate
What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high energy sugars?
CO(2)
Why are the reactions of the Calvin Cycle also called the light independent reactions?
because they don't need sunlight
Carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle from the ___________.
atmosphere
Energy from ATP and high energy electrons from NADP are used to convert __________ molecules into higher energy forms.
3-carbon
When sunlight excites electrons in chlorophyll, how do the electrons change?
they gain a great deal of energy
What is a carrier molecule?
a compound that transfers electrons to another molecule
Name two molecules involved in photosynthesis.
NADP+
+ATP
How does NADP+ become NADPH?
by gaining 2 high energy electrons along with a hydrogen atom
Light dependent reactions convert ADP into _________.
ATP
Light dependent reactions produce __________.
oxygen gas
Light dependent reactions convert _________ into NADPH.
NADP+
Where do light dependent reactions take place?
thylakoid membrane
High energy electons move through the electron transport chain from photosystem ____ to photosystem ____.
II
I
The difference in charges across the thylakoid membrane provides the energy to make _____.
ATP
How does ATP sythase produce ATP?
ATP+phosphate
What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high energy sugars?
CO(2)
Why are the reactions of the Calvin Cycle also called the light independent reactions?
because they don't need sunlight
Carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle from the ___________.
atmosphere
Energy from ATP and high energy electrons from NADP are used to convert __________ molecules into higher energy forms.
3-carbon
When sunlight excites electrons in chlorophyll, how do the electrons change?
they gain a great deal of energy
What is a carrier molecule?
a compound that transfers electrons to another molecule
Name two molecules involved in photosynthesis.
NADP+
+ATP
How does NADP+ become NADPH?
by gaining 2 high energy electrons along with a hydrogen atom
Light dependent reactions convert ADP into _________.
ATP
Light dependent reactions produce __________.
oxygen gas
Light dependent reactions convert _________ into NADPH.
NADP+
Where do light dependent reactions take place?
thylakoid membrane
High energy electons move through the electron transport chain from photosystem ____ to photosystem ____.
II
I
The difference in charges across the thylakoid membrane provides the energy to make _____.
ATP
How does ATP sythase produce ATP?
ATP+phosphate
What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high energy sugars?
CO(2)
Why are the reactions of the Calvin Cycle also called the light independent reactions?
because they don't need sunlight
Carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle from the ___________.
atmosphere
Energy from ATP and high energy electrons from NADP are used to convert __________ molecules into higher energy forms.
3-carbon
The calvin cycle uses six molecules of carbon dioxide to produce ___________.
glucose
What are the three factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis?
1. light
2. temperature
3. water shortage
Increasing the intesisty of light ________ the rate of photosynthesis.
increases
What is a calorie?
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
How many calories make up 1 Calorie?
1000
Cellular respiration begins with a pathway called _______.
glycolysis
Glycolysis releases ___ ATP.
2
What is cellular respiration?
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
What is the equation for cellular respiration?
6O(2)+C(6)H(12)O(6)<>6CO(2)6H(2)O+36 ATP
Glucose's process in the cytoplasm that produces ATP is called ________.
glycolysis
Pyruvic acid goes into the ________ inside the mitochondrion to produce ATP.
Krebs cycle
Electrons carried in NADH go into the process of _________.
ETC
What would the problem be if cellular respiration took place in one place? (3)
1. all energy would be released at one time
2. most of the energy would be lost
3. damage cell
Where does glycolysis take place?
cytoplasm
Where do the Krebs cycle and electron transport take place?
mitochondrion
What is glycolysis?
the process in which one glucose is broken down into pyruvic acids
how does the cell get glycolsys going?
2 molecules of ATP are released
If the cell used 2 ATP molecules at the beginning of glycolysis, how does it end up with a net gain of 2 ATP molecules?
because 4 ATP molecules have been produced
What is NAD+?
an electron carrier
What is the function of NAD+ in glycolysis?
holds electrons until they can be transferred
Why can glycolysis supply energy to cells when oxygen is not available?
because it doesn't require energy
Oxgyen present:
Not:
cellular respiration
fermentation
What problem does a cell have when it generates large amounts of ATP from glycolysis?
the NAD is already full
What is fermentation?
the release of energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen
How does fermentation allow glycolysis to continue?
NADH is turned back into NAD+
Because fermentation does not require oxygen, it is said to be _____________.
anaerobic
When too much oxygen is used, you must repay an __________.
oxygen debt
What are the two main types of fermentation?
1. alcoholic fermentation
2. lactic acid fermentation
What organism uses alcoholic fermentation?
yeast
What happens to the small amount of alcohol produced in alcoholic fermentation during the baking of bread?
it evaporates
What does lactic acid fermentation convert into lactic acid?
pyruvic acid
During rapid exercise, how do your muscle cells produce ATP?
lactic acid fermentation
cellular respiration
At the end of glycolysis, how much of the chemical energy is still unused?
90%
At the end of glycolysis, the broken pyruvic acid is sent to the _____________, located in the __________.
Kreb cycle
mitochondria
Because the final stages of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are said to be ________.
aerobic
Name the two electron carriers.
NADH and FADH(2)
In the presence of oxygen, how is the pyruvic acid produced in glycolsis used?
it is broken into carbon dioxide
When is pyruvic acid broken into carbon dioxide?
Kreb cycle
What is the Kreb cycle also known as?
citric acid cycle
When does the Krebs cycle begin?
when pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis enters the mitochondria
What happens to each of the 3 carbon atoms in pyruvic acid when it is broken down?
1 atom- becomes part of molecule of carbon dioxide
2 atoms- join to coenzyme A
What happens to the carbon dioxide produced in breaking down pyruvic acid?
it is released as waste
How is citric acid produced?
acetyl-CoA+2 carbon acetyl group+4 carbon molecule
During the energy extraction part of the Krebs Cycle, how many molecules of CO(2) are released?
6
How many ATP does ETC make? glycolysis? cellular respiration?
34
2
36
When electrons join NAD+ and FAD during the Krebs cycle, what do they form?
NADH, FADH(2)
Why is the 4 carbon compound generated in the breakdown of citric acid the only permanent compound in the Krebs Cycle?
because it must start and end with the same things
When NAD+ and FAD move down the ETC, the are passed ________, to save energy. They become ________ and ___________ at the end of the chain. The final electron acceptor is __________.
slowly
NADH FADH
oxygen
Inside the outer membrane is the _________. Inside the inner membrane is the _________. MITOCHONDRIA---
medulla
matrix
What is the electron transport chain?
uses high energy electrons from Krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP
What does the electron transport chain use the high energy electrons from the Krebs cycle for?
to make ATP
How does the location of the electron transport chain differ in eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
eukaryotes-inner membrane of mitochondria
prokaryotes-cell membrane
Where does the electron transport chain get the high energy electrons that are passed down the chain?
NADH and FADH(2)
What is the energy of the high energy electrons used for every time 2 high-energy electrons move down the electron transport chain?
ATP
What causes the H+ ions in the in the intermembrane space to move through the channels in the membrane and out into the matrix?
diffusion
On average, how many ATP molecules are produced as each pair of high-energy electrons moves down the ETC?
3
What two purposes does ATP synthase serve?
1. a transport protein
2. enzyme
High energy electrons from NADH and FADH(2) are passed to and along the __________.
ETC
The energy from the electrons moving down the chain is used to move H+ions across the _____________.
inner membrane of the mitochondria
H+ ions build up in the ____________ space, making it ____________ charged and making the matrix negatively charged.
This is called _____________.
intermembrane
positively
electrochemical gradient
H+ ions move through channels of _______________ in the inner membrane.
ATP synthase
The ATP synthase uses the energy from the moving ions to combine ADP and phosphate, forming high energy __________.
ATP
How many ATP molecules are formed during cellular respiration?
36
Why is more ATP generated from glucose in the presence of oxygen?
because it can extract from each glucose molecule efficiently
What happens to the energy of glucose that is not used to make ATP molecules?
released as heat
What are the final waste products of cellular respirations?
water and carbon dioxide
What are three sources of ATP a human body uses at the beginning of a race?
1. already stored
2. carbohydrates
3. sugar from liver
(next-fat)
When quick energy is needed, what source supplies ATP?
lactic acid fermentation
Why does a sprinter have an oxygen debt to repay after the race is over?
because they used all the oxygen already
A runner needs more energy for a longer race, which they generate from __________.
cellular respiration
How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration opposite in terms of carbon dioxide?
photo-reactant
cell-product
How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration opposite in terms of oxygen?
photo-product
cell-reactant
What is the most effective process on earth?
cellular respiration
Name the steps of cellular respiration.
glycolysis
Krebs cycle
ETC