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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the name for copying DNA?
DNA replication
What are two reasons why cells divide rather than continue to grow indefinitely?
1. more demands the larger it becomes
2. more trouble moving nutrients and waste (diffusion)
What must be preserved during cell growth?
the surface area to volume ratio
(surface area-maintain larger)
(volume-maintain smaller)
What process might become difficult if a cell grows too large?
A cell makes copies of its DNA only when the cell _________.
What (3) determines the rate at which food and oxygen in a cell are used up and waste products removed?
1. the cell's organelles
2. the cell's volume
3. the cell's location
How can you obtain a cell's ratio of surface area to volume?
divide surface area by volume
If a cell's surface area is 6 cm and its volume 1 cm, what is the ratio of surface area to volume?
As a cell grows in size, its ___________ increases much more rapidly than its __________.
surface area
What happens in the surface:volume ratio if volume increases more rapidly than surface area?
the ratio decreases
What is cell division?
the process of a cell dividing into two new daughter cells
How does cell division solve the problem of increasing size?
It reduces the volume of the cell, spliting it in half. It preserves, therefore, the surface area to volume ratio.
Before cell division, DNA is packed tightly to prevent:
1. losing materials and DNA
2. damage
Which of these:
chromatid, chromatin, or chromosomes?
DNA that is found only in cell division that is joined to specfic sister chromosomes.
Which of these:
chromatid, chromatin, or chromosomes?
DNA usually found mainly in the cell
Which of these:
chromatid, chromatin, or chromosomes?
DNA found in cell division that is tightly wound from chromatin.
What is another name for cell division?
M phase
In eukaryotic cells, what are the two main stages of cell division?
mitosis and cytokinesis
When chromosomes become visible at the beginning of cell division, what does each chromosome consist of?
DNA, wrapped around protein
Each pair of chromatids is attached at an area called the ____________.
The period of growth in between cell divisions is called ___________.
What is the cell cycle?
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.
Sister chromatids are _________.
What does G1 stand for? S? G2? M?
1st growth
2nd growth
The S phase is the only time of ____________ and therefore it synthesizes ________.
DNA replication
During the ______ phase of the cell cycle, the cell grows and everything cells need is doubled.
During the ____ phase of the cell cycle, DNA replication takes place.
During the _____ phase of the cell cycle, more organelles, etc. are made if needed; acts as "check off period".
The division of the cell nucleus during the M phase of the cell cycle is caled _________.
Interphase is divided into what three phases?
G1, S, G2
What happens during the G1 phase of the cell cycle?
cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles
What happens during the S phase of the cell cycle?
DNA replication
What happens during the G2 phase of the cell cycle?
prepare for mitosis by adding more organelles, etc. and checking off doubled parts.
What are the four phases of mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
What are the two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope at the beginning of prophase?
What are centrioles made of?
What is the spindle?
a fanlike microtuble/microfilament structure that separates the chromosomes
Which event is this (mitosis)? The chromosomes move until they form two groups near the poles of the spindle.
Which event is this (mitosis)? The chromosomes become visible. The centrioles take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus.
What phase is this (mitosis)? A nuclear envelope reforms around each cluster of chromosomes. The nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter nucleus.
Which phase is this (mitosis)? The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.
What is the center of the cell where the chromosomes line up>?
metaphase plate
What is cytokinesis?
the end of telophase, the division of cytoplasm
How does cytokinesis occur in most animal cells?
it is drawn inward and pinched into two nearly equal parts
What forms midway between the divided nucleus during cytokinesis in plant cells? What does this later form?
a cell plate
new cell wall
What happens to cells at the edges of an injury when a cut in the skin or a break in a bone occurs?
cells are stimulated to divide rapidly
What cell can be made into any other cell?
stem cells
When cells are stimulated rapidly, they ____________.
prevent against affection
What happens to the rapidly dividing cells when the healing process near completion?
the rate of cell division slows
When cells come touch one another and tell one another not to divide, they are performing ________________.
contact inhibition
What do cyclins regulate?
the cell cycle
Cyclins regulate the cell cycle by preserving __________ and making sure that each stage is completely finished before ____________.
the next one begins
What are internal regulators?
proteins that respond to events inside the cell
________ regulators direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle.
________ regulators prevent the cell from entering anaphase until all its chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle.
_________ regulators include growth factors.
____________ regulators prevent excessive cell growth and keep the tissue of the body from disrupting one another.
What is cancer?
a disorder that prohibits cells from controlling growth.
All cancers ______________.
divide uncontrollably
Cancer means that the process of ___________ is no longer controlled.
cell division
Cancer cells don't respond to signals that regulate ____________.
cell division
Cancer cells form masses of cells called ____________.
Cancer cells break loose and spread throughout the ________.
Cancer is a disease of the ____________.
cell cycle
begins after the chromosomal movement stops.
The identical sets of chromosomes - which are by this stage at opposite poles of the cell, uncoil and revert to the long, thin, thread-like chromatin form.
A new nuclear envelope forms around each chromatin mass.
Nucleoli appear.
Eventually the miotic spindle breaks-up.
The centromeres split seperating the two members of each chromatid pair - which then move to the opposite poles of the cell: When they are seperated the chromatids are called chromosomes.
* As the chromosomes are pulled by the the microtubules during _______, they appear to be "V"-shaped because the centromeres lead the way, dragging the trailing arms of the chromosomes towards the pole/s.
characterized by the "__________ plate". This is a mid-point region within the cell that is formed/defined by the centromeres of the chromatid pairs aligning along the microtubules at the centre of the miotic spindle.
* Early in the stage the chromatin fibres shorten into chromosomes that are visible under a light microscope. (Each chromosome consists of a pair of identical double-stranded chromatids.)
* Later in ______, the nucleolus disappears, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and the two centrosomes begin to form the miotic spindle (which is an assembly of microtubules).
* As the microtubules extend in length between the centrosomes, the centrosomes are pushed to opposite "poles" (extremes) of the cell.
* Eventually, the spindle extends between two opposite poles of the cell.