Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of the feline left atrium
ratios of left atrial size and aortic diameter, from 2DE and M-mode echocardiography, are not interchangeable
Comparison of canine cardiac troponin I concentrations as determined by 3 analyzers
Results from this study suggest that although canine cTnI values obtained from the Biosite, Stratus, and Access analyzers are closely correlated, they cannot be directly compared with each other. In the absence of a gold standard none of the analyzers can be considered more correct than the others.
Pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of cyclosporine treatment of dogs with steroid-refractory inflammatory bowel disease
5 mg/kg cyclosporine q24h; significant decreases in T-cell number in biopsies and clinical activity score; cyclosporine pharmacokinetcis were similar to healthy dogs; cyclosporine is an effective alternative treatment in dogs refractory to steroids
Dexamethasone, melphalan, actinomycin D, cytosine arabinoside (DMAC) protocol for dogs with relapsed lymphoma
The DMAC protocol is an effective rescue protocol for dogs with relapsed multicentric lymphoma. Thrombocytopenia is common; in general, the protocol is well tolerated. Remission 72% (44% CR; 28% PR)
The Effect of Glucocorticoids on Canine Lymphocyte Marker Expression and Apoptosis
Glucocorticoids significantly alter the expression of phenotypic markers on canine lymphocytes, and in vitro induce apoptosis. These findings identify potential mechanisms for clinical immunosuppression from glucocorticoid treatment
Hematologic changes associated with half-body irradiation in dogs with lymphoma
HBI was myelosuppressive but effects were short term and resolved in 22 of 24 dogs. Further studies are needed to elucidate the safety and role of HBI in the treatment of dogs with lymphoma.
Retrospective evaluation of sildenafil citrate as a therapy for pulmonary hypertension in dogs
Sildenafil appeared to be well tolerated in dogs with PH and was associated with decreased Pulmonary Arterial Pressures (the median decrease in PAPs was 16.5 mmHg) and amelioration of clinical signs in most. Sildenafil represents a reasonable treatment option for dogs with pulmonary hypertension.
type V phosphodiesterase inhibitor that produces nitric oxide mediated vasodilatation
Frequency and risk factors for urinary tract infection in cats with diabetes mellitus
Urinary tract infections are common in diabetic cats regardless of status of diabetic control, suggesting routine monitoring with urine sediment exams or urine culture is warranted
Liver disease in dogs with tracheal collapse
There was a significant hepatic dysfunction in the majority of dogs with a tracheal collapse. Liver function should be routinely assessed in dogs with severe respiratory disease.
High resolution protein electrophoresis of 100 paired canine cerebrospinal fluid and serum
this study did not confirm high resolution electrophoresis of paired CSF and serum samples to be a valuable ancillary diagnostic tool for canine neurological diseases
Management of Myasthenia Gravis Using Cyclosporine in 2 Dogs
cyclosporine appears to be effective in the management of MG in dogs
Esophageal dysmotility in young dogs
Esophageal dysmotility without overt megaesophagus occurs in young terrier dogs, and affected animals can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Further, an improvement in esophageal motility occurs with time in some dogs, and might represent a syndrome of delayed esophageal maturation
Comparison of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic indices of efficacy for 5 fluoroquinolones toward pathogens of dogs and cats
E. coli resistance to fluoroquinolones approximated 40%. For susceptible isolates, enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin more consistently reached indices associated with predicted efficacy, but only at the high dose.
A combination chemotherapy protocol with dose intensification and autologous bone marrow transplant (VELCAP-HDC) for canine lymphoma
Factors associated with longer survival time were lower stage (P = .042) and higher cyclophosphamide dose (both increasing dose [study groups 1-3], and the highest dose [group 3] compared with the lower doses combined [groups 1 and 2]) (P = .027). Median survival time for dogs in group 3 was 139 weeks, compared with 43 weeks and 68 weeks for dogs in groups 1 and 2, respectively.
Myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory cytopenias. Normocytic, Normochromic nonregenerative anemia. < 6% myeloblasts. Dysplastic changes restricted to erythrocytes
Myelodisplastic syndrome with sideroblastic differentiation.

Microcytic or hypochromic Non-regen anemia. With large numbers of siderocytes in peripheral blood. Variable ringed sideroblasts in bone marrow. Increased rubriblasts generally. Dysplastic changes in all lines.
Myelodysplastic syndrome with excess myeloblasts.

Bicytopenia or pancytopenia. Increased G:E ratio 8-20% myeloblasts. BM was normo or hypercellular. Dysgranulopoiesis and usually dyserythro and dysmegakaryopoiesis as well.
Secondary Dysmyelopoiesis
Usually associated with drugs or acute inflammatory disease. Blast cells in BM are NOT increased
Acute conversion of atrial fibrillation in two dogs by intravenous amiodarone administration
30 kg dog received 250 mg (5 mg/ml given at 6 ml/min then decreased to 3 ml/min after suspected pain). 45 kg dog received 170 mg (5 mg/ml given at 3 ml/min; transfusion was stopped early due to intense pruritis and injected MM
Acute encephalitis, polyarthritis, and myocarditis associated with West Nile virus infection in a dog
WNV should be considered as a cause for antibiotic-non-responsive fever, progressive neuro signs, and cardiac arrythmias. Pancreatitis, polyarthritis, ranel and hepatic failure are also potential manifestations. First report suggesting WNV causes polyarthropothy in any species. PCR on tissue biopsy samples or synovial fluid along with positive IgM serology may facilitate antemortem diagnosis.
Aldosterone-to-renin and cortisol-to-adrenocorticotropic hormone ratios in healthy dogs and dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism
Plasma concentrations of cortisol, ACTH, aldosterone and renin overlapped in groups of healthy dogs and dogs with hypoadrenocorticism. Cortisol-ACTH ratio and Aldosterone-Renin ratios did NOT overlap between groups. This allows for the specific diagnosis of hypoaldosteroninsm and hypocortisolism in the dog.
Alpha1-proteinase inhibitor deficiency and Bartonella infection in association with panniculitis, polyarthritis, and meningitis in a dog
PCR positive for bartonella. Alpha1-proteinase inhibitor deficiency has not been previously reported in dogs. Pansteatitis treated with vitamin E
Antibiotic sensitivity profiles do not reliably distinguish relapsing or persisting infections from reinfections in cats with chronic renal failure and multiple diagnoses of Escherichia coli urinary tract infection
UTIs in 5 cats were determined to be reinfections vs persistent infections based on antibiograms determined by Kirby-Bauer discs and Etests and by clonality determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Both antibiotic susceptibility tests determined RI vs PI with only 58% efficiency. Antibiograms can not reliably determine the difference between RI and PI.
Applications, complications, and outcomes of transvenous pacemaker implantation in 105 dogs (1997-2002)
3rd degree AV block and Sick Sinus syndrome were most common reasons for placing pacemaker. Mean survival rate was 2.2 years. Complication rate is low and success rate was high for placing pacemaker.
Assessment of left atrial appendage flow velocity and its relation to spontaneous echocardiographic contrast in 89 cats with myocardial disease
Low LAA flow velocities identified a subgroup of patients at increased risk of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast and possible thromboembolism. These findings may have important clinical implications for anticoagulation therapy and prognostication in cats with cardiomyopathy. LAA(max)<0.25 m/s predicted SEC with 100% sens/74% spec; LAA(max)<0.20 m/s = 69% sens/83% spec
Association of Helicobacter with cholangiohepatitis in cats
Helicobacer spp were found in liver tissue of 2/32 cats with cholangiohep and 1/17 control cats. These species are distinct (based on PCR) from those invading gastric tissues and are consistent with species previously found in cat intestine and bile and hepatobiliary disease in people and rodents.
C-reactive protein concentration in dogs with chronic valvular disease
Compared with controls, dogs with chronic valvular disease had higher plasma concentration of C-reactive protein. C-reactive protein concentration was not related to the presence of congestive heart failure or murmur grade.
CCNU in the Treatment of Canine Epitheliotropic Lymphoma
This study demonstrates that CCNU chemotherapy can be considered a reasonable option for the treatment of canine epitheliotropic lymphoma in dogs. 78% of dogs had measurable improvement; with 6% complete response
Canine intracranial primary neoplasia: 173 cases (1986-2003)
Menigioma, astrocytoma, oligodendrogliomas were most common. Based on the results of this study, thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasonography may be indicated to look for extracranial neoplasia prior to advanced imaging of the brain or intracranial surgery.
Canine mast cell tumors: correlation of apoptosis and proliferation markers with prognosis
This study shows that both mean AgNOR score and Ki-67 score are prognostic markers for canine MCTs. The Ki-67 score can be used to divide Patnaik grade 2 MCTs into 2 groups with markedly different expected survival times.
Canine trichinosis presenting with syncope and AV conduction disturbance
Large cyst burden with cysts in myocardium causing AV block.
Cardiac troponins as indicators of acute myocardial damage in dogs
Increased cardiac troponins suggestive of myocardial damage occurred in 93% of dogs with GDV and 75% with Blunt chest trauma. cTnI appeared more sensitive, but cTnT may be a negative prognostic indicator in GDV. Both the Cardiac Reader and Abbot Axysm systems tested seemed applicable for the measurement of canine cardiac troponins, with the Cardiac Reader particularly suitable for use in emergency settings.
Cardiovascular involvement in 8 dogs with blastomyces dermatitidis infection
Blastomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs from endemic areas with inflammatory myocarditis, heart block, heart base or intracardiac mass lesions, syncope, or endocarditis.
Cardioversion of supraventricular tachycardia using lidocaine in five dogs
In 5 cases there was rapid conversion to normal sinus rhythm, which was then maintained with oral mexilitene (4 dogs) or mexilitene combined with propranolol (1 dog).
Cerebral cholesterol granuloma in a cat
Cat presented for 10 day history of behavioral changes. MRI showed contrast enhancing space-occupying lesion in the region of the falx cerebri. Post mortem confirmed cholesterol granuloma.
Characterization of the anemia of inflammatory disease in cats with abscesses, pyothorax, or fat necrosis
Anemia of inflammatory disease in cats seems to be multifactorial. Iron sequestration, decreased RBC survival and insufficient EPO and decreased bone marrow response are likely all involved.
Clinical and echocardiographic features of primary infundibular stenosis with intact ventricular septum in dogs
Accurate determination of the severity of the stenosis and the anatomy of the obstructing lesion are important in devising a treatment strategy. Recognition of the fibrous diaphragm by echocardiography identifies a subset of dogs potentially amenable to surgical dilation without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass.
Clinical and topographic magnetic resonance characteristics of suspected brain infarction in 40 dogs
All infarcts appeared nonhemorrhagic, with marked contrast enhancement observed in only 3 of 38 dogs, all of which were imaged more than 7 days after the onset of signs of neurologic dysfunction. Suspected infarcts were hyperintense on DWI sequences and were hypointense on the apparent diffusion coefficient map.
Clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging features, and outcome after surgical and medical treatment of otogenic intracranial infection in 11 cats and 4 dogs
MR imaging was effective in characterizing the location and extent of the pathologic changes intracranially as well as within middle/inner ear structures. Results of CSF analysis were characteristic of bacterial infection in most of the animals with acute or subacute disease. Dogs and cats with intracranial disease secondary to extension of otitis media/interna have a good-to-excellent prognosis when the condition was diagnosed and was treated by surgical exploration and appropriate antibiotic therapy.
Coagulation profiles in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts before and after surgical attenuation
Dogs with CPS have lower activity of clotting factors compared to healthy dogs, resulting in a prolonged APTT. Surgical attenuation of the shunt results in increased abnormalities in coagulation times and factors immediately after surgery. Hemostasis is normalized after complete recovery of shunting after attenuation, in contrast to dogs with persistent shunting.
Comparative aspects and clinical outcomes of canine renal hemangiosarcoma
Hemoperitoneum and distant metastasis at diagnosis appear to occur less frequently in dogs with renal HSA compared with other visceral forms of HSA. Furthermore, dogs with renal HSA have protracted disease progression, with improved 1-year survival rates and longer median survival time compared to dogs with splenic, cardiac, and retroperitoneal HSA. Dogs with hemoperitoneum have shorter survival time.
Comparison of glomerular filtration rate between greyhounds and non-Greyhound dogs
The higher SCr concentration in Greyhounds is not attributable to decreased GFR, and may be associated with the high muscle mass in the breed. Healthy Greyhounds have higher GFR than do non-Greyhound dogs.
Comparison of the effects of daily and intermittent-dose calcitriol on serum parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium concentrations in normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure
Calcitriol treatment did not result in significant differences in serum parathyroid hormone concentrations before and after treatment in both normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure. With these dosages, adverse affects of calcitriol administration were not seen.
Comparison of thoracic radiographs and single breath-hold helical CT for detection of pulmonary nodules in dogs with metastatic neoplasia
CT is significantly more sensitive than thoracic radiography for detecting soft-tissue nodules in dogs. 1 mm nodules were reliably detected with CT and 7-9 mm nodules required for rads. Only 9% of nodules found on CT were discovered by rads
Computed tomographic evidence of bulla effusion in cats with sinonasal disease: 2001-2004
Findings of this study suggest that auditory canal dysfunction may play a larger role in feline sinonasal disease than was previously recognized. Nasopharyngeal lymphoma was most common sinonasal neoplasm associated with bullae effusion. No cat with nasal carcinoma had bulla effusion.
Copper metabolism and oxidative stress in chronic inflammatory and cholestatic liver diseases in dogs
3+ or higher histochemical detection of copper indicates a primary copper storage disease. The expression profile of copper-associated genes can be used as a reference for future studies on copper-associated diseases. All 3 diseases have reduced protection against oxidative stress, opening a rationale to use antioxidants as possible therapy.
Copper-associated chronic hepatitis in Labrador Retrievers
A Hereditary form of hepatitis occurs in Labrador retrievers and is caused by a defect in hepatic copper metabolism. Copper is accumulated within the centrolobular regions.
Daily controlled physiotherapy increases survival time in dogs with suspected degenerative myelopathy
Physiotherapy improves outcome in dogs affected by degenerative myelopathy.
Detection of Neospora caninum tachyzoites in canine cerebrospinal fluid
Antemortem diagnosis of N. caninum by finding tachyzoites in CSF is possible. Dog in case study had been on glucocorticoids prior to diagnosis.
Detection of activated platelets in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia
This study provides support for the hypothesis that platelets circulate in an activated state in many dogs with IMHA. Platelet P-selectin was 8 times higher in IMHA dogs. P-selectin may be a more sensitive test for prothrombotic tendencies than routine coagulation tests.
Diagnosis of mediastinal masses in dogs by flow cytometry
Flow cytometry is a useful tool for discriminating mediastinal masses. Lymphocyte-rich mediastinal masses could be unambiguously identified by flow cytometry in 13/13 cases. All cases of thymoma (n = 6) consisted of > or = 10% lymphocytes coexpressing CD4 and CD8, a phenotype that is characteristic of thymocytes, whereas 6 of 7 lymphomas contained <2% CD4+CD8+ lymphocytes. The CD4+CD8+ lymphoma could be readily distinguished flow cytometrically from thymoma by light scatter properties. The phenotypes of the remaining lymphomas were CD4+ T cell (4), CD34+ (1) and B cell (1).
Diagnostic value of fasting plasma ammonia and bile acid concentrations in the identification of portosystemic shunting in dogs
Ammonia is a highly sensitive and specific parameter to detect PVA and portosystemic shunting in a general population and in dogs with liver disease, whereas BA is somewhat less sensitive and considerably less specific.
Digoxin and mexiletine sensitivity in a Collie with the MDR1 mutation
Many drugs are substrates for p-glycoprotein. Collies should be screened for disease, especially if showing exaggerated side-effects to medications.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cats
DIC in cats can result from a variety of neoplastic, infectious, and inflammatory disorders, and is associated with a high case fatality rate. Lymphoma, other cancer, pancreatitis, sepsis were most common underlying problems.
Doppler echocardiographic prediction of pulmonary hypertension in West Highland white terriers with chronic pulmonary disease
Pulmonary hypertension is common in WHWT with interstitial pulmonary disease. Analysis of right ventricular Acceleration Time (AT) and AT : Ejection Time (ET) may be predictive of PH and should be particularly useful if TR is absent.
Dried solidified blood calculi in the urinary tract of cats
Significantly more carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur (P = .012, P = .02, and P = .012, respectively) were present in the elemental analysis of the DSB calculi than in the control calculi, suggesting that the DSB calculi are primarily formed from organic material. At this time, we are uncertain why these DSB calculi become solidified, and we recommend that samples be submitted both in formalin and preservative free to further investigate their etiology.
Dynamics of Leishmania-specific immunoglobulin isotypes in dogs with clinical leishmaniasis before and after treatment
The study indicates that both the IgA isotype, which is mostly produced by mucosal plasma cells, and the IgM isotype are increased in infected symptomatic dogs, as previously reported for IgG. These 3 isotypes decreased significantly 1 year after initiation of medical treatment.
Outcome of dogs with diabetic ketoacidosis: 127 dogs (1993-2003)
For each unit increase in the base deficit, there was a 9% greater likelihood of discharge from the hospital. The majority of dogs with DKA were not previously diagnosed with DM. Concurrent conditions and electrolyte abnormalities are common in DKA and are associated with length of hospitalization. Survival was correlated to degree of anemia, hypocalcemia, and acidosis.
Oral amiodarone therapy in dogs with atrial fibrillation
On the basis of >20% decrease in heart rate in 76% of the dogs and conversion to sinus rhythm in 35%, it was concluded that amiodarone may be useful in managing AF in dogs. The use of amiodarone in the medical management of AF in dogs warrants further investigation.
N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity in plasma of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
In a population that included cats with subclinical disease, those with HCM did not have significantly higher plasma ANP-IR concentration than did healthy cats. An exploratory multivariable regression analysis suggested a linear relationship between ANP-IR concentration and atrial size, wall thickness, and their interaction.
Myeloma-related disorders in cats commonly present as extramedullary neoplasms in contrast to myeloma in human patients: 24 cases with clinical follow-up
Radiographic bone lesions are uncommon in cats with myeloma-related disorders and extramedullary presentation is common, relative to human myeloma.
Molecular detection of microbes in nasal tissue of dogs with idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis
Detection of high levels of fungal DNA in nasal biopsies of dogs with LPR suggests that fungal organisms may be causally associated with the inflammation observed, although the possibility of entrapment or accumulation of fungi in the nasal cavity due to chronic inflammation cannot be excluded. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying etiopathogenesis of LPR.
Meningoencephalomyelitis Caused by Pasteurella multocida in a Cat
Neurologic cat with multifocal localization had rare intracellular and extracellular rod-shaped bacteria. Culture and PCR confirmed P. multocida
Magnetic resonance imaging findings in Finnish Spitz dogs with focal epilepsy
Finnish Spitz dogs with focal seizures suffer from focal idiopathic epilepsy and have nondetectable findings on MRI or pathology. MRI showed poor sensitivity in detecting epileptogenic areas in our patients with focal seizures. Reversible MRI changes in 1 dog could have been caused by seizures.
Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction secondary to hemangiosarcoma in a dog
3yo Male Standard Schnauzer presented for exertional syncope. A mass was noted in the LVOT and the dog died 3 weeks after discharge. Histopath identified the mass as hemangiosarcoma.
Left basilar systolic murmur in retired racing greyhounds
Greyhounds with soft, left basilar systolic murmurs had mildly (but significantly) higher mean peak aortic velocities than similar dogs without murmurs. This 1-2/6 basilar systolic murmur is common in Greyhounds, and it does not appear to be of any clinical consequence.
Lack of association between repeated vaccination and thyroiditis in laboratory Beagles
There was no evidence to support an association between routine vaccination and thyroiditis at postmortem examination in beagle dogs after repeated vaccination.
Ki67 reactivity in nasal and periocular squamous cell carcinomas in cats treated with electron beam radiation therapy
An accelerated, hypofractionated electron beam radiation therapy protocol is well suited for feline squamous cell carcinomas. The protocol appears especially efficacious in tumors with a high Ki67 reactivity.
Inhaled flunisolide suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, but has minimal systemic immune effects in healthy cats
Although IGC suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, IGC had minimal effects on the systemic adaptive immune system.
Investigation of physiologic leukopenia in Belgian Tervuren dogs.
Physiologic leukopenia is uncommon in the Belgian Tervuren dog. Differences with earlier data published in North America might be due to genetic or environmental differences.
Influence of infecting serogroup on clinical features of leptospirosis in dogs
Dogs with suspected serogroup Pomona infection were more likely to suffer from vomiting (P = .01), thrombocytopenia (P = .009), severe azotemia (P = .04), and hyperphosphatemia (P = .006) than dogs with other serogroups and were less likely to be discharged alive from the hospital (P = .03). This study suggests that only minor clinically relevant differences exist among serogroups. Leptospira serogroup Pomona caused more severe renal disease and was associated with a worse outcome compared with disease caused by other serogroups.
Immunoglobulin deficiency in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Pneumocystis pneumonia
The results of this study suggest that there is a defect in immunity in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels that underlies the susceptibility of these dogs to pneumocystosis. Further studies are indicated to elucidate the mechanisms behind the defect, the prevalence within the breed, and the potential mode of inheritance of the problem.
Immediate and late outcomes of transarterial coil occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus in dogs
Transarterial coil occlusion was procedurally and hemodynamically successful in the majority of dogs studied. Coil embolization of the pulmonary arterial circulation was the most common complication, but single coil embolization to a pulmonary artery branch did not have adverse clinical consequences.
Hypothyroid-associated central vestibular disease in 10 dogs: 1999-2005
Although the pathogenesis in dogs without evidence of infarction is unknown, central vestibular dysfunction appears to be a rare but reversible neurologic sequelae of hypothyroidism
Hypothyroid dogs treated with intravenous levothyroxine
It was concluded that physical examination and clinicopathologic findings of dogs with a hypothyroid crisis are nonspecific, although Rottweiler dogs may be at increased risk. Concurrent disorder, such as infection, concurrent administration of thyroid hormone-altering medication, and surgery, may be associated with development of a hypothyroid crisis. Resolution of abnormal mentation, ambulation, and systolic hypotension should be expected within 30 hours. Prognosis is good in most treated dogs.
Hyperphosphatasemia in Scottish terriers: 7 cases
This study provides evidence of possible benign hyperphosphatasemia in Scottish Terriers or of another familial disorder causing asymptomatical hyperphosphatasemia without corresponding histopathological abnormalities in the liver. Prospective studies of ALKP isoenzyme characterization, investigation of skeletal integrity, evaluation of additional related dogs to determine prevalence, and longer follow-up evaluation are necessary to better characterize this finding.
Hypernatremia and hyperlipidemia in a dog with central nervous system lymphosarcoma
marked hypernatremia and hyperosmolality with appropriate urine concentration and increased urine osmolality were consistent with hypothalamic osmoreceptor dysfunction. Rare cases of essential hypernatremia in humans have been associated with increases in serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations that reappear in association with recurrent hypernatremic crises. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were induced secondary to hypernatremia in rats administered hypertonic saline solution. Inhibition of lipoprotein lipase because of high sodium chloride concentration has been proposed as a possible cause.
High complication rate of an automatic Tru-Cut biopsy gun device for liver biopsy in cats
We conclude that the difference in complication rate is explained by the biopsy technique used. The pressure wave, which occurs when firing the automatic device, may have caused intense vagotonia and shock. Use of this automatic biopsy device should be avoided in cats because of the high risk of fatal complications.
Heat stroke in dogs: A retrospective study of 54 cases (1999-2004) and analysis of risk factors for death
The overall mortality rate was 50%. Hypoglycemia, prolonged PT, and aPTT at admission were associated with death. Serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL after 24 hours, delayed admission, seizures, and obesity were also risk factors for death.
Heart disease as a cause of death in insured Swedish dogs younger than 10 years of age
Breed, age, and sex affect cardiac mortality in certain breeds of dogs, but no effects of month and geographic location were identified. These findings can assist clinicians in establishing diagnoses, and can assist breeders in defining priorities for preventative measures. Cavalier, Wolfhounds and Danes were at highest risk; males > females
Gastrin-secreting neoplasia in a cat
Pancreatic mass stained heavily for gastrin using immunohistochemical staining. Fasting gastrin, gastric ulceration and endocrine tumor can be used preoperatively for a diagnosis. Calcium challenge can be helpful
Dyskinesia Associated with Oral Phenobarbital Admnistration in a Dog
Dyskinesia signs decreased when phenobarb was reduced and returned as the drug was increased. Recommend other AED if phenobarb-induced dyskinesia is noted
Echocardiographic assessment of the left ventricular outflow tract in the Boxer
a relatively smaller LVOT in Boxers predisposes them to increased ejection velocity and development of murmurs
Echocardiographic estimation of systemic systolic blood pressure in dogs with mild mitral regurgitation
Despite the significant correlation, the wide limits of agreement between the methods hinder the clinical utility of echocardiographic estimation of blood pressure.
Effect of storage of reconstituted recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) on thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response testing in euthyroid dogs
Reconstituted rhTSH can be stored at 4C for 4 weeks and at -20C for 8 weeks without loss of biological activity
Effectiveness of acupuncture in veterinary medicine: systematic review
No compelling evidence to accept or reject acupuncture for animals. Some evidence for cutaneous pain and diarrhea resolution.
Effects of allopurinol treatment on the progression of chronic nephritis in Canine leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum)
Allopurinol lowered proteinuria in asymptomatic proteinuric dogs and prevented the deterioration of GFR and improved the tubulointerstitial, but not the glomerular, lesions in affected dogs. It resolved the azotemia in 5 of the 8 dogs admitted with 2nd stage chronic renal failure. Treatment with allopurinol is advisable in CL cases with asymptomatic proteinuria or 1st–2nd stage chronic renal failure.
Effects of chemotherapy on immune responses in dogs with cancer
Chemotherapy may have less impact on T-cell numbers and ability to mount antibody responses in dogs with cancer than was previously anticipated, though dogs with lymphoma or osteosarcoma appear to be relatively T-cell deficient before initiation of chemotherapy.
Effects of deracoxib or buffered aspirin on the gastric mucosa of healthy dogs
Administration of deracoxib to healthy dogs resulted in significantly lower gastric lesion scores, and fewer days of vomiting compared to aspirin, indicating that deracoxib is better tolerated than aspirin in some dogs
Effects of dietary modification in dogs with early chronic valvular disease
Observed changes in both blood variables and echocardiographic measurements warrant additional studies on dietary modifications in dogs with early CVD.
Efficacy of ronidazole for treatment of feline Tritrichomonas foetus infection
Oral administration of RDZ at 30 to 50 mg/kg q12h for 14 days resolved diarrhea and eradicated infection (on the basis of polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing) in 1 naturally infected cat and 10 experimentally inoculated cats receiving a different isolate of T foetus.
Endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in healthy dogs, dogs with selected neoplasia, and dogs with nonneoplastic diseases
Endostatin higher in older dogs and in dogs with measureable VEGF. Endostatin and PCV was associated with decreasing PCV. VEGF, but not endostatin associated with increased WBC and platelet count. VEGF, but not endostatin more likely to be increased in dogs with neoplasia. Similar factors may be involved with both VEGF and endostatin, but further work is necessary.
Epilepsy in Irish Wolfhounds
Epilepsy in IWs is likely autosomal recessive with incomplete penetrance. Males are at increased risk.
Euthyroid sick syndrome in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy before treatment with anticonvulsant drugs
IE is a reason for euthyroid sick syndrome. Thyroid concentrations were postitively correlated with duration of time between seizure episodes.
Evaluation of platelet aggregation using a point-of-care instrument in retired racing Greyhounds
PFA-100 closure times were shorter in Greyhounds than non-Greyhound breeds. Platelet counts were lower and PCV higher in Greyhounds vs. Non-Greyhounds.
Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of benazepril in the treatment of chronic renal insufficiency in cats
UPC were lower in cats on benazepril vs placebo. The number of cats who remained in IRIS stage 2 or 3 were higher in treated cats vs placebo.
Failure of imidocarb dipropionate to clear experimentally induced Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs
Imidocarb does not clear infections of E. canis in experimentally infected dogs.
Outcomes of pituitary tumor irradiation in cats
Radiation therapy is an effective primary treatment modality for cats presenting with neurologic signs associated with a pituitary mass and can improve clinical signs associated with concurrent hyperadrenocorticism or acromegaly in cats with no neurologic abnormalities.
Perinuclear antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody and response to treatment in diarrheic dogs with food responsive disease or inflammatory bowel disease
Dogs with food responsive diarrhea (FRD) had significantly higher Perinuclear antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody scores and were more likely to be have positive titers. A significant decrease was seen in dogs with FRD after treatment. An increase in pANCA titers was seen in IBD dogs after treatment with pred. A positive pANCA test before therapy may aid in the diagnosis of FRD.
Pharmacodynamics of carvedilol in conscious, healthy dogs
carvedilol (1.5 mg/kg PO q12h) in healthy, conscious dogs confers nonselective beta blockade for 12 hours, with minimal effects on resting HR, BP, and echocardiographic variables. Additionally, the magnitude of beta blockade correlated strongly to peak plasma carvedilol concentration, suggesting that therapeutic drug monitoring may be clinically useful.
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of ramipril and ramiprilat in healthy dogs and dogs with reduced glomerular filtration rate
No adjustment of the recommended PO dosage of ramipril is needed in dogs with moderate renal impairment.
Prodrug that undergoes de-esterification to form ramiprilat, an ACE inhibitor
Phase I and pharmacokinetic evaluation of the combination of orally administered docetaxel and cyclosporin A in tumor-bearing cats
Based on the clinical toxicity profile, with gastrointestinal adverse effects and hematologic toxicity the maximal tolerated dose of oral DT was 1.75 mg/kg in combination with 5 mg/kg CSA.
Phase I evaluation of low-dose suramin as chemosensitizer of doxorubicin in dogs with naturally occurring cancers
A fixed, low-dose suramin regimen yields the desired target plasma concentrations in most dogs, and appears to enhance the activity of doxorubicin without enhancing toxicity.
Physiologic VDD versus nonphysiologic VVI pacing in canine 3rd-degree atrioventricular block
This study confirms the potential to achieve physiologic pacing with a commercial, single-lead system in dogs. VDD pacing improved hemodynamics and neurohormonal profiles over asynchronous pacing although the long-term clinical benefits of these changes remain to be determined.
Portosystemic shunt associated with severe episodic weakness
Weakness, seizures and megaesophagus. All neurological signs resolved after partial attenuation of the shunt. Thoracic radiographs were never repeated, but regurgitation stopped.
Postoperative adjuvant treatment of invasive malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs with doxorubicin and docetaxel
Chemotherapy did not lead to an improved outcome in this population. Docetaxel treatment was well tolerated. Additional investigations of adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary cancer are warranted.
Prevalence of unilateral and bilateral deafness in border collies and association with phenotype
Associations between congenital sensorineural deafness and pigmentation patterns linked to the merle gene were demonstrated for Border Collies. Evidence for an inherited component to CSD in Border Collies supports selective breeding from only tested and normal parents to reduce the prevalence of this disease.
Primary cardiac lipoma in a dog
Invading lipoma into myocardium as a cause of dyspnea and exercise intolorance. Right atrial thrombus was associated with the mass.
Primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in 19 cats: diagnosis, therapy, and outcome (1998-2004)
pIMHA appears to occur more frequently than recognized previously, with a more favorable prognosis in cats than in dogs. The Combs' Test was useful in identifying immune-mediated pathogenesis.
Primary renal neoplasia of dogs
Primary renal tumors in dogs are generally highly malignant with surgery being the only treatment that improves survival. Carcinomas were the most common tumor-type in this study.
Prognostic indicators for dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy
in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy the restrictive transmitral flow (TMF) pattern appears to represent a useful prognostic indicator. Class of HF, ascites, ESV-I, and EF are also useful indexes if an adequate TMF pattern is not recorded.
Prospective evaluation of the balloon-to-annulus ratio for valvuloplasty in the treatment of pulmonic stenosis in the dog
Multiple factors influenced determination of the Baloon to Annulus Ratio and a range of 1.2–1.5 was effective without detrimental consequences. Dogs with severe PS had continued decrease in RV pressure 3 months after treatment.
Pulmonary lesions in cats with diabetes mellitus
There was a significant association between the presence of abnormal pulmonary histopathology and DM. Pulmonary abnormalities detected by histopathological examination in cats with diabetes included congestion and edema, histiocytosis, pneumonia, smooth muscle hypertrophy, fibrosis, mineralization, neoplasia, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. The observed association between DM and pulmonary lesions in cats, independent of clinical evidence of respiratory disease, emphasizes the need for careful assessment of the respiratory tract in sick cats with diabetes.
Pulmonary thromboembolism in a heartworm-positive cat
CT angiography and lung function testing should be considered useful in diagnosing PTE in cats.
Pulsed tissue Doppler imaging in normal cats and cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
This study identified both diastolic and systolic impairment in cats with HCM compared with normal cats. The study also documents the normal physiologic nonhomogeneity in myocardial motion in cats and the subsequent loss of this feature in the HCM diseased state.
Recurrence rate, clinical outcome, and cellular proliferation indices as prognostic indicators after incomplete surgical excision of cutaneous grade II mast cell tumors: 28 dogs (1994-2002)
The combination of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen scores was prognostic for local recurrence and development of local recurrence was prognostic for decreased overall survival. Results suggest that a minority of incompletely excised MCTs recur. Therefore, ancillary local therapies may not always be necessary. However, local recurrence can negatively affect survival of the affected dogs. Cellular proliferation indices may indicate the likelihood of MCT recurrence after incomplete excision.
Relationship between retinoic acid receptor alpha gene expression and growth-inhibitory effect of all-trans retinoic acid on canine tumor cells
These results suggest that all-trans retinoic acid may be an effective antitumor agent for MCT in dogs, and that prior measurement of expression of RARa mRNA may be a good indicator of the effectiveness of ATRA treatment.
Response of canine cutaneous epitheliotropic lymphoma to lomustine (CCNU): a retrospective study of 46 cases
Given the high response rate and well tolerated protocol, prospective studies are warranted to investigate the utility of CCNU alone or in multi-agent protocols for the treatment of ELSA.
Simplified methods for estimation of plasma clearance of iohexol in dogs and cats
The best combination of time for the 2-sample method was 5 and 120 minutes in dogs and 20 and 180 minutes in cats. The best time for sampling in the single-sample method was 120 minutes in dogs and 80 minutes in cats. Plasma clearance of iohexol can be estimated in dogs and cats from 1 or 2 blood samples with a reasonable margin of error.
Single agent gemcitabine chemotherapy in dogs with spontaneously occurring lymphoma
Gemcitabine administration as a single agent resulted in lowered neutrophil and platelet counts and did not reduce lymphoma burden.
Survival of cats with naturally occurring chronic renal failure is related to severity of proteinuria
Despite the relatively low concentrations of proteinuria typical of chronic renal disease in cats (>0.2 UPC), this measurement is of prognostic significance.
Systemic hypertension in dogs with leishmaniasis: prevalence and clinical consequences
systemic hypertension is prevalent in dogs with renal disease secondary to leishmaniasis, even without azotemia. Left ventricular hypertrophy was the most common systemic consequence of SH.
Systolic and diastolic myocardial dysfunction in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or systemic hypertension
LVFW motion is similarly altered in cats with HCM and LVH-SHT. This dysfunction occurs independently of the presence of myocardial hypertrophy, demonstrating that TDI is capable of detecting systolic and diastolic segmental functional changes in nonhypertrophied wall segments in cats with HCM and SHT.
Temporal relationship between gastrointestinal protein loss, gastric ulceration or erosion, and strenuous exercise in racing Alaskan sled dogs
These data suggest that relatively modest exercise is required to increase intestinal protein loss, but more substantial exercise is required to cause alterations in the proximal gastrointestinal tract. However, none of these alterations appear to progress with increasing exercise duration.
The effect of ramipril on left ventricular mass, myocardial fibrosis, diastolic function, and plasma neurohormones in Maine Coon cats with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy without heart failure
Treatment of Maine Coon cats with HCM without CHF with ramipril did not change LV mass, improve diastolic function, alter DE, or alter plasma BNP or aldosterone concentrations in a relevant manner.
The use of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in a Boxer Dog to control clinical signs of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
Implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator successfully treated arrhythmogenic right-sided cardiomyopathy in a boxer
The use of intravenous human immunoglobulin in treatment of severe pemphigus foliaceus in a dog
A total of 10 treatments of IVIG were given to treat pemphigus foliaceus in an 11 year-old wire-haired fox terrier. No adverse side-effects related to IVIG administration were noted.
Third-degree atrioventricular block in 21 cats (1997-2004)
Third-degree heart block in cats is often not immediately life threatening. Survival was not affected by the presence of underlying heart disease or congestive heart failure at the time of presentation. Even cats with collapse might survive > 1 year without pacemaker implantation.
Tissue Doppler imaging and gradient echo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in normal cats and cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
TDI, but not gradient echo cMRI, was effective in detecting diastolic dysfunction in cats with moderate to severe HCM compared with normal cats.
Propofol did not reduce diastolic function (Em) in cats with HCM but mildly reduced systolic myocardial velocity (S) in Maine Coon cats with HCM that were anesthetized with propofol
Tissue Doppler imaging for detection of radial and longitudinal myocardial dysfunction in a family of cats affected by dystrophin-deficient hypertrophic muscular dystrophy
TDI appears more sensitive than conventional echocardiography in detecting regional myocardial abnormalities.
Tolerability and efficacy of benazepril in cats with chronic kidney disease
Benazepril was well tolerated and decreased proteinuria in cats with CKD. No significant affect on survival was noted.
Toxic neutrophils in cats: clinical and clinicopathologic features, and disease prevalence and outcome--a retrospective case control study
Toxic neutrophils were found to be associated with certain clinicopathologic abnormalities, and when present, may aid in the diagnosis, as well as the assessment of hospitalization duration and cost. The evaluation of blood smears for toxic neutrophils provided useful clinical information.
Treatment of Conidiobolus sp. pneumonia with itraconazole in a dog receiving immunosuppressive therapy
Successful resolution of Conidobolus pneumonia with long term itraconazole therapy.
Treatment of dogs with lymphoma using a 12-week, maintenance-free combination chemotherapy protocol
12-week maintenance-free chemotherapy protocol was well tolerated and had satisfactory results.
Ultrasonographic assessment of regional radial and longitudinal systolic function in healthy awake dogs
Strain and Stain Rate imaging is a repeatable and reproducible method for assessing systolic myocardial function. The combination of these indices with conventional echocardiographic variables may be useful for screening canine myocardial diseases.
Urine N-telopeptide excretion in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma
This study suggests that high urinary NTx excretion may support the diagnosis of focal skeletal osteolysis in dogs, and reductions in urine NTx excretion after treatment may reflect elimination or minimization of pathologic bone resorption. No correlation between Ntx excretion and tumor length or bALP activity was noted.
Use of glargine and lente insulins in cats with diabetes mellitus
There was significant improvement in serum fructosamine and glucose concentrations in all cats but there was no significant difference between the 2 insulin groups. This study suggests once daily glargine along with high-protein diet is a reasonable therapy for cats with diabetes.
Use of ketamine for the management of refractory status epilepticus in a dog
Two 5 mg/kg boluses followed by a CRI at 5 mg/kg/hr of ketamine in an 8 year-old yorkie stopped seizure activity. Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist and has been shown to be effective against refractory seizures in people.
Use of rheolytic thrombectomy in the treatment of feline distal aortic thromboembolism
Thrombus was removed in 5 of 6 cats and 3 cats survived to discharge.
Utility of polymerase chain reaction for analysis of antigen receptor rearrangement in staging and predicting prognosis in dogs with lymphoma
PARR assay was more likely to detect tumor cells in blood in stage 5 lymphomas. PARR was more sensitive for detecting circulating tumor cells than visual assessment of blood or bone marrow because 80% of stage 3 lymphomas were blood-PARR-positive. PCR stage was not prognostic for disease-free interval (DFI) or survival.
Validation of 2 techniques for electrocardiographic recording in dogs and cats
this study supports the reliability and clinical validity of the ‘‘gel’’ and ‘‘pads’’ techniques for ECG recording both in the dog and the cat, with some limitations for the ‘‘pads’’ technique in cats.
Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in canine intracranial meningiomas and association with patient survival
VEGF expression can be measured in canine intracranial meningiomas and may be associated with poor outcome. The extent of VEGF expression may be useful as a prognostic indicator
Vestibular, vaginal, and urethral relations in spayed dogs with and without lower urinary tract signs
No statistical difference in measurments between normal dogs or dogs with lower urinary tract disease could be found.