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150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
NADPH oxidase
production of H2O2
debranching enzyme releases
free glucose, nonbranched glycogen doesn’t release free Glc
responsible for excitotoxic effects of glumatate
NMDA channel, voltage and ligand gates
ligand gated glutamate channel
AMPA and kainate receptors (both cation channels)
safranin
stains gram negatives red
carbolfuchsin
stains acid fast organisms red
crystal violet
stains gram positives blue
methylene blue
secondary stain in acid fast (stains non-acid fast organsisms)
RET proto-oncogene
growth factor receptor
anti-Pol I
marder for diffuse scleroderma
location of Penicillin BP
in the plamsa membrane
staph alpha toxin
pore-forming toxin
pertussis toxin
ribosylates Gi thereby stopping inhibtion of AC--> increased cAMP
verotoxin
EHEC, same mechanism of shiga toxin (60S subunit)
sealing strands
found in tight junctions
von gierke's disease
hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, lactic acidosis, ketosis
HbA1c affected by
RBC turnover, low turnover (disproportionately high number of old cells) --> high A1c levels, see this in folate/B12 def
CO poisoning
hypoxia, cherry red lips
chronic lead poisoning
anemia with basophilic stipling, neuropathy, ab pain
chronic mercury poisoning
CNS atrophy, gingivitis, gastritis, renal tubular changes
site of collagen helical formation
RER and golgi apparatus get triple helix self-assembly
cleavage and crosslinking of collagen occur
in the extracellular space
reperfusion injury
free radical damage
identification
unconscious adoptino of the characteristics or activities of another person, used to reduce pain of loss
sublimation
diversion of unacceptable impulses into acceptable outlets
bumetanide
loop diuretic
alternative pathway of complement
turned on by the surfaces of bacteria, Factor B is an activator protein in this pathway
most abundant complement protein
C3-->C3a (anaphylaxotoxin) and C3b (opsonin and clearance of IC)
classical complement pathway
activated by Ig (C1q binds IgG heavy chain)
AA protein as in RA
represents an enzymatically degraded form of SAA (serum amyloid-associated) protein hich is made in the liver
"cytotoxic disease"
type II hypersensitivity is a form
atopic disease
type I hypersensitivity
contraction alkalosis
loss of ECF with diuretics preferentially loses Na+ and Cl- not HCO3- so you get a proportional increase in HCO3 and thus alkalosis
reiter's (reactive arthritis)
conjunctivitis, arthritis, keatoderma blennorrhagica (papulosquamous skin rash on palms and soles), urethritis, circinate balanitis, occasionally aortitis
osteomyelitis stuff
IVDU = pseudomonas; chronic UTI = staph auresu; multiple sex partners = gonorrhoeae; sickle cell = salmonella; TB = vertebral osteomyelitis (potts)
HBeAg
marker of transmissibility - disappears after a few months
Cardio
Norepinephrine
alpha 1 and beta 1 activity, very little beta 2 activity
verapamil and heart failure
verapamil has been associated with exacerbated CHF due to strong negative ionotropic effect
amlodipine and felodipine
most commonly used Ca channel blockers in patients with CHF
iron and the heart
hemochromatosis in heart can lead to cardiac failure
digoxin and WPW Syndrome
can lead to ventricular fibrillation via enhancing accessory conduction pathways
right dominant heart circulation
posterior descending branch originates from RCA which gives rise to the posterior interventricular septum
left dominant heart circulation
posterior descending branch originates from left circumflex a
MV prolapase gender bias
more women than men
fragile X syndrome cardiac comorbidity
MV prolapse and aortic root diilatation (may result in regurgitation)
class IB antiarrhythmics
lidocaine, tocainide, mexiletine
resporption of distal clavicles
hyperparathyroidism
scalloping of vertebral bodies
secondary to aortic aneurysm
graft vascular disease
develops years after transplantation and is due to intimal thickening of the coronary arteries without associated atheroma formation of significant inflammation, cannot be prevented with current immunosuppressive therapy
hyaline vs hyperplastic arteriosclerosis
hyaline associated with benign htn vs hyperplastic associated with malignant htn that results in onion-skinning
Endocrine
diabetic ketoacidosis
hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, negative sodium balance (glycosuria causes increased excretion of sodium in the urine)
fascia where thyroid lies
pretrachial fascia
GI
daycare center diarrhea
shigella if bloody, yersinia enterocolitica also
yersinia enterocolitica
diarrhea (may be bloody in severe cases), vomiting may be present, pseudoappendicitis, reactive arethritis, erythema nodosum, septicemia
salmonella vs shigella
salmonella has slower onset and more pronounced systemic symptoms
intussesception vs volvulus age groups
volvulus more likely in eldery, intussusception in young
tropical sprue vs celiac sprue anatomy
tropicalsprue is entire small bowel, celiac is proximal small bowel only
blind loop syndrome
obstruction causes bacteria buildup and malnutrition due to bacterial activity
calcium absorption
at the ileum
most common outcome of hep B
subclinical disease followed by complete recovery>acute (most recover)>healthy carriers>chronic infection
orodysphagia
from muscular or neurological disorders like stroke, ALS, muscular dystrophy or MG, cough hoarseness nasal regurgitation
VIP
acts on crypt cells in intestine
Muscles of mastication
temporalis
backward movement of jaw
digastric
depress lower jaw
lateral pterygoid
move lower jaw forward
mylohyoid
depress lower jaw
medial pterygoid
elevate lower jaw
carcinoma of pancreas
very dilated biliary tree terminating in a blunt, nipple like obstruction at the lower end of the common bile duct
choledocholithiasis
gallstone becomes lodged in bile duct leading to charcot triad
charcot triad
RUQ pain, fever, jaundice indicative of cholangitis
stones in gallbladd or cystic duct
do not cause jaundice
stones in cystic duct
febrile, unrelenting RUQ pain and tenderness ,leukocytosis, mild elevations in bilirubin (flow of bile is not impeded)
stones in common duct
cause colicky pain and jaundice (flow of bile impeded)
potentiate secretin-mediate bircarb secretion:
CCK and Ach, but these do not cause bicarb secretion alone
hyoscyamine
anticholinergic to alleviate postprandial pain in IBS
mesalamine
5-ASA derivative for UC, not drug of choice for flare ups
HEME
tumors that cause erythrocytosis
renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, meningioma, pheochromocytoma, cerebellar hemangioblastoma, adrenal adenoma
eosinophilia in asthma
mediated by IL-5
neutrophilic leukocytosis
mediated by IL-1 and TNF
defects of platelet vesicle release or secondary aggregation
due to storage pool disease and aspirin use
storage pool disease
MSK
clawing of ring, forefinger, and little fingers
ulnar nerve lesion
DMD cardiac comorbidity
dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction abnormalities
myotonic dystrophy
trinucleotide expansion
myositis ossificans
ossification following healing in site of muscle trauma, typically in athletic adolescents and young adults
involvement of cervical spine in RA
up to 80% of patients, 25% in atlanto-axial joint, if large amount of subluxation is present then might get quadraplegia and even sudden death
ankhylosing spondylitis complications
AV block, bladder and bowel problems, uveitis, pulmonary fibrosis, psoriasis, IBD
lytic and blastic lesions in bone
breast cancer mets
lytic lesions in bone
kidney, lung, and thyroid cancer mets
muscle innervated by superficial peroneal nerve
peroneus longus, suspect injury when you lose sensation in the dorsum of the foot
skeletal muscle relaxants
cyclobenzaprine
centrally acting, structurally related to TCAs, strong anticholinergic side effect profile
baclofen
centrally acting, inhibition of monsynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes at the spinal level
methocarbamol
general CNS depressant
diclofenac
NSAID
ketorolac
NSAID
rofecoxib
selective cox 2 inhibitor
celecoxib
COX-2 inhibitor and sulfa drug
tramadol
centrally acting analgesic compound with action at mu opiate receptor, doesn’t cause much respiratory depression, use for moderate to severe pain
dorsal interosseus
abductors of fingers
palmar interosseus
adductors of fingers
most common site for embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma
head and nexk, other sites include GU tract (such as sarcoma botyroides) and extremeties
primary osteoporosis
postmenopausal women
secondary osteoporosis
other causes
myasthenia gravis autoantibodies
anti-nAChR, anti MuSK (muscle specific kinase) in a secondary form which results in decreased NMJ patency
MG exacerbated by antibiotic:
aminoglycosides which have curare like side effects
osteomalacia bone histology
seams of uncalcified osteoid increased osteoblasts
paget dz bone histology
thickening of bony trabeculae with irregularly arranged cement lines (mosaic pattern)
unicameral bone cyst
a long bone contains a cystic space filled with fluid lined with connective tissue granulation tissue collagen and histiocytes
hyperphosphatemia effect on vitamin D
directly inhibits the production of 1,25 dihyrdoycholecalciferol
posterior tibial artery
feeds posterior leg and plantar foot
NEURO
neurotransmitter for induction of REM sleep
acetylcholine
oculomotor nerve
innervates levator palpebrae superioris - elevates the eyelid; oculomotor lso has parasympathetic fibers that synpse in ciliary ganglion to innervate the sphincter pupillae muscle which constricts the pupil - lesion of this causes eyelid drooping and mydriasis
pathognomonic for INO
inability to adduct the right eye on left lateral gaze
stroke in endocarditis
PARIETAL LOBE --> may result in spatial recognition problems
meningism
triad of: nuchal rigidity, photophobia, headache
herpes simplex encephalitis
subacute onset with meningismus, headache, personality changes
Cranial Nerve Nuclei
medulla
IX, X, XI, XII
pons
V VI VII VIII
midbrain
III, IV
medial nuclei
motor
lateral nuclei
sensory
axillary nerve innervation
deltoid and teres minor muscles
DRG contain
nerve cell bodies of primary sensory afferents for proprioception, discriminative touch, and vibration, send axons up ipsilateral dorsal column
primary afferents for pain and temp
cell body in DRG, synapse in ipsilateral dorsal hron, cross in the anterior white commissure, ascend in the contralateral spinothalamic tract
multinucleated giant cells in brain
HIV encephalitis
CMV in brain
tropism for ependymal cells (seen in ependymal and periventricular locations)
vacuolar myelopathy
degeneration of of posterior columns and LCST
site of most arachnoid cysts
sylvian fissure
sylvian fissure
lateral fissure (as opposed to central fissure separating parietal from frontal lobes)
jamais vu
failure to recognize famiiar events that have been encountered before
appendicular ataxia
cerebellar hemispheres
truncal ataxia
cerebellar vermis
prosopagnosia
inability to recognize faces, bilateral lesion of visual association cortex
anosagnosia
deficit of cognition in ones own illness, lesions in nondominant parietal lobe
ganser syndrome
giving approximate answers instead of exact ones, most commonly seen in prison inmates
central chromatolysis
loss of histological staining in lower motor neurons whose axons have been damaged as by injury to ventral roots
lewy body composition
alpha-synuclein
salivation innervation
chorda tympani from VII controls salivation from submandibular and sublingual glands, parotid gland is IX
lacrimal gland
VII
Ki-67
nuclear factor used to measure neoplastic replicative activity