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72 Cards in this Set

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Name the types of interviews.
-Structured,
semi-structured and unstructured interviews
-In-person and Focus Groups
Describe a Structured Interview?
-All the questions are listed.
-The interviewer just reads the questions.
-Use the Interview Schedule.
What is an Interview Schedule?
The list of questions that guide an interview.
Describe a semi-structured interview.
-Basic questions, could be more questions than a structured interview, but free to ask follow-up questions.
Describe an unstructured interview?
Main topics listed. Most flexible in question wording, order, etc.
What is a Focus Group?
-Lead by a moderator,
-5 -7 people that are focused on one topic.
-Meant to gather info about a product (attitudes, knowledge, behavior)
-Helps develop marketing plan/advertising,
-helps develop questions for survey.
How to conduct a good interview?
-Do Not begin cold.
-Stay on Task
-Be Direct
-Dress proper for the format
-Selet quite site for interview.
-Introduce yourself and your topic.
-Record respondence answers accurately,
-use tape recorder and take notes on non-verbal actions.
-Guarantee Anonymity
-Avoid leading questions, double barrelled questions.
-Ask for examples.
-Be non-judgemental
-Thank them for the interview
The role of the interviewer?
-Establish legitimacy (they need to know they are very important to this)
-Gain Respondents cooperation.
-Develop rapport
-Encourage them to talk (by saying things like oh, I see, or tell me more.
Problems associated with the interview method?
-Social bias (everyone wants to be nice)
-People don't remember
-People don't have useful info
-People use language in diff ways.
What does the researcher do with the data after the interview?
-Transcribe the tapes.
-Look for themes.
-Interpret the material.
Interview Advantages vs Questionnaire
-Richer data (non verbal cues)
-Can clarify questions
-Encourage participants
-Effective for sensitive topics.
Interview DisAdvantages vs Questionnaire
-Expensive
-Introduce Interviewer bias
-Need interviewer training
-Data processing.
What is Observation?
-A data collection method.
-Observing individuals behaviors as they are in everyday life.
-It is a qualitative method.
- It is flexible
List the 6 procedures/steps for obersvation.
1. Framing a Research Question
2. Gaining access to the observation site.
3. Selecting an Observer Role.
4. Reducing Reactivity Effect
5. Developing Observational Notes
6. Analyzing and reporting observation
Explain Framing a Research Question?
- An open-ended question (how do adolescents use the Internet)
- More research questions can develop during the observation proces (how males and females differ)
- Deciding who, where and when you will observe.
Describe Gaining Access to the Observation Site
- No permission needed if in public place, if private need to go to the gatekeeper.
-
Describe Selecting an Observer Role
- Complete Observer
- Observer as participant
- Participant as observer
- Complete participants
Describe Complete Observer
- Not involved
- Group does not know
- Strenghts - objectivty, participants act normal
- Weakness - ethical concerns, no knowledge about particpants
Describe Observer as participant?
- Involved Minimual
- Group knows.
- Strengths- reduced ethical issues, more knowledge
- Weakness - less objectivity due to interaction.
Participant as Observer
- Involved high level
- Group knows
- Strengths - firsthand experience, no ethical concerns
Weakness - less objectivity, going native (behave like the group), lost perspective
Complete Participant
- Involved
- Group does not know
- Strenght - learn more with first hand
- Weakness - ethical issues, less objectivity, behave like those you are observing.
Describe Reducing Reactivity Effect
- When the presence of the individual in a resea4rch setting influences participants behavior
- How to reduce - Dont' tell the participants
- Long observation period (group will get use to you and behave natural)
Describe Developing Obervational Note
- Field Notes - HOw did you feel
- Observation Notes - Chris said X
Describing Analyzing and reporting observation
- Generalizations based on common themes, patterns
Define the Rhetoric Analysis?
- Study of Persuasion (exam available techniques in a message)
- It is a qualitative method
- It analyzes speech, language written and visual.
- Example, examining means of persuasion in both language and image in a magazine or advertisment.
Give an example for a research topic that you can use rhetorical analysis to examine.
Ways women are shown as sex obj in commericals.
List Rhetorical devises that are commonly used
- Solving a Problem
- Offering expert advise
- Sexuality
- Metaphoric Language
- Metonymic Language
- The Herd Mentality
- Desire of approval of others
- Keeping up with others
- Imitation of Stars and Celebrity
- Reward Yourself
- Stimulate Fantasy
Rhetorical Devise - Solving a Problem, explain
- Example, Use x deodorant and find the man of your dreams.
Rhetorical Devise - Offering Expert Advise
- To activate human need of reassurance, eg. More doctors recommend
Rhetorical Devise - Sexuality
- Playing upon our desires for sexual relationships, eg. using image of attractive women or men.
Rhetorical Devise - Metaphoric Language
Use of Analogy, eg. My love is a red rose
Rhetorical Devise - Metonymic Language
- Associations, eg Big houses and wealth, France and romance
Rhetocial Devise - The Herd Mentality
eg. Everyone is doing it.
Rhetorical Devise - Desire of Approval of Others
eg, purchasing certain product or service will earn us the approval of the elite
Rhetorical Devise - Keeping up with others
- Purchasing products that demonstrate we are successful, eg, taking expensive vacations
Rhetorical Devise - Imitation of Stars and Celebrities
- eg, using same products celebs do
Rhetorical Devise - Reward Yourself
You deserve it for your hard work.
Rhetorical Devise - Stimulate Fantasy
- To generate fantasy and daydreams by the use of poetic and dreamy language eg, perfume advertisements.
Visual Rhetorical Devises
- Camera Shots and Angles
- MOdels/Images
- Spatiality
Visual Rhetorical Devise - Camera Shot/Angles
-e.g, low versus high camera angle, close ups versus long shots
Visual Rhetorical Devise - Models/Image
-e.g, thier age, gender, facial characters, lifestyle
Visual Rhetorical Devise - Spatiality
- The amount of white or empty space in an ad, we usually equate emtpy space/white with sophiticaiton and elite taste, an expensive watch may be full of white space.
Problems with Rhetorical Analysis
- Are the principles being applied correctly.
- People would not interpret ads in the same way (ie. difference between message encoding and audience decoding)
-eg., a copywriters referral in an ad to a famous work of art, people who don't know the work will not interpret the ad correctly.
What is Content Anaysis?
- A research technic for the objective, systematic and quantitive description of the content of communication messages , eg violence, negative portrayals of women
- It analysis mass media messages like newspaper articles, tv, movies or non mass media messages like personal letters, telephone conversations.
Give an example for a research topic that you can use content analysis to examine it.
Analyzing the Violence of TV series (to examine things like amount of violence, type of violence, reason of violence, social and racial charateristics of the perpetrator, # of men compared to women doing the violence.
Discuss important issues in conducting content analysis
1. Selecting the Sample
2. Finding a measurable unit of analysis
3. Defining terms and coding categories
4. Coder agreement/reliability
5. Manifest and latent content.
What is the IRB
Insitutional Review Boards
A committee that reviews research proposals to judge the ethical merits of a research study on a reward/cost basis
Ethical concerns with Miligrams obedience study
- harm stress, how people will walk away feeling about themselves
Participants shocked others for making errors
Participants were deceived – no shocks actually administered
Researchers saw that participants deliver high voltage shock (followed orders even when subjects appeared in great pain)
Participants suffered shame & embarrassment
Goals for Content Anaysis
- Descriptive
- Compare and contrast different msg i the same medium
- Compare and contrast mesages across different media
- Compare and contrast different messages across different countries
Descriptive goal for content anaysis
- Evidence for claims about media effects, eg 100 violence acts per hour in a tv series (Media effects assumption based on content analysis results: Heavy TV viewers show more aggressive behaviors than light TV Viewers)
Compare and Contrast different messages in the same medium
- Compare violence amounts in TV news versus TV series.
Compare and contrast messages across different media for content analysis
- compare violence in movies versus tv shows.
Compare and contrast different messages across different countries in content analysis
- Compare amount of violence in American Movies versus French Movies
Selecting the Sample for Content Anaylis
The use of random sample. Is the sample used representative (eg. TV news in March, April, May 2005)
Finding a measurable Unit of Analysis in content analysis
After the sample is selected, the researcher must decide what units of the contents wwill be coded. (eg. A TV show, a TV scene, each hour of film time, a frame of comic strip, a sentence, a paragraph)
- Why? For quantifying and comparison purposes.
Defining terms and coding categories in content analysis
- A crucial problem in conducting content analysis
- Ex, when examining violence on TV shows ( what will be considered as violence - verbal, physical, or both? Accidents result in bodily harm; intention to commit harm, comic violence, etc.)
- It is important tha the researcher states his/her own operational definition of terms/cetegories (i.e, how the concept will be coded or counted.
What is Operational Definition
How the concept will be coded or counted., Eg, Violence is any actions involved bodily harm done purposefully.
Coder Agreement/Reliability in content analysis
Will two coders for certain messages come up with the same results? At least. 70 is acceptable.
Coding Manifest only or both Manifest and Latent content, in content analysis
Manifest refers to the materials that actually appears in the message.

Latent content - reading between the lines, eg, what an attractive outfit you are wearing.
After the Coding
Statistical Analysis and reporting results, eg. 10.9 violence acts per hour in Children's cartoons.
Interpretation of Findings
Discuss implications of the study.
Content Analysis
Results are often a great start to begin research on media effects because they can confirm or disconfirm these assumptions.
What is Plagiarism and how do you avoid it?
- Buying, stealing or borrowing
- Using the source to close when paraphrasing
- Building on someone ideals without citing.
Informed Consent Form
Document that given to participants to read &
sign prior to participation in study.

Describes what subjects can expect in study
Time commitment
Potential risks or discomforts
Benefits
Describes how subjects are free to withdraw
What are the ethical issues related to data collection and reporting findings
Treatment of human subjects
Data collection, analysis & report
What are the essential ethical issues involving human beings
- Voluntary participation
- No harm to the participants
- Anonymity
- Confidentiality
- Deception Subjects
What is ethics
Conforming to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group”
What’s im/proper?
What is Voluntary participation?
participation should be totally voluntary, and the participants are free to withdraw at any time.
Example: Professor and students (fear of nonparticipation might affect grades)—leave classroom, ask others to collect surveys, send survey by mail, etc.
Disadvantage of voluntary participation rule: generalizability is threatened.
Anonymity
When Researchers cannot identify a given response with a given respondent (e.g., mail survey).
Confidentiality
When Researchers know, but promise wouldn’t reveal
Deception Subjects
not saying that you are a researcher , or not saying why you are doing this research.
Conceal research’s real purpose is common, but you have to debrief your subjects!
ASCH Experiment 1951 (the power of conformity in groups)
Ethical Issues related to Researchers
Be honest in data collecting and analysis: never fabricate data.
Admit the shortcomings and failtures of the study.
Never present other’s work as their own