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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In 1967, what government organization was created to regulate the obscene?
the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography
Name the three tests of obscenity
1) the average person, finds the work appeals to perient interests
2) the work depicts in a patently offensive way sexual conduct specifically defined by applicable state law
3) The work lacks serious literary, artistic, poitical or scentific value.
What are the four principals that limit liberty?
Harm, paternalism, moralism, and offense
What is the harm principle?
A person's liberty may be restricted to prevent harm to others
What is the paternalism principle?
Morally offensive content should be controlled to prevent harm to self. It dehumanizes, protects those who can't protect themselves.
It limits autonomy and lets the media or others decide what is best for us.
What is the moralism principle?
Content should be controlled to prevent immoral behavior or violation of societal norms, kind of like religion. Mill agreed with this.
What is the principle of offense?
Society should restrict individual liberty to prevent offense to others
What is offensive behavior?
It causes shame, embarassment, discomfort, etc. to be experienced by onlookers in public.
What is privacy?
-The right to be alone
-Maintenance of a personal life.
-The condition of being protected.
Why do we value privacy?
1) Others are not entitled to know everything about us.
2) It can protect us from scorn and ridicule by other people.
3) The more others know about us, the less powerful we become in controlling our destiny.
4) It's valuable in keeping others at a distance and regulating the degree of social interaction that we have. Like tresspassing laws.
What are the 4 torts of privacy?
Intrusion, Publicity of Embarassing private facts, placing someone in a false light, and appropriation.
What is intrusion?
The invasion of privacy. The media can be held liable for things like eavesdropping and telelphoto lenses.
What is privacy?
To be left alone.
Being protected from unwanted access by others.
Why do we value privacy?
Maintain confidentiality of personal information.
Privacy can protect us from scorn and ridicule by others.
It's valuable in keeping others at a distance.
What is the paternalistic model?
when another person or group decides what is best for the person to know or see
Ex. The FCC regulations
What is the Fiduciary model?
Both parties giving suggestions, but ultimately one person or group makes the final decision.
What is Defamation?
Any communication that holds a person up to contempt, hatred, ridicule, or scorn.
What are the defenses against defamation?
Truth and Priviledge and fair comment
Name the 5 elements of defamation.
1) It harms a person's reputation.
2) Must be published or communicated to a third party.
3) Must be identified by name or direct inference.
4) Must prove that it has done damage to their reputation.
5) Negligence must be shown.
What is fair comment?
The right to criticize as in theater or book critiques.
What are the 3 categories of invation of privacy?
Appropriation, private facts and intrusion.
What is appropriation?
the commercial use of a person's name or picture without permission.
What are the 3 elements of journalistic truth?
Accuracy, context, and balance.
What elements make up negligence?
-there must be a duty to the affected party
-someone must breach that duty
-the affected party must experience harm
-harm must be caused by the breach of duty.
What are the 4 liberty-limiting principles?
1) Harm Principle
2) Offense Principle
3) Principle of Paternalism
4) Principle of Legal Moralism
What is the harm principle?
A person's liberty may justlifiably be restricted only in order to prevent harm that the person's actions would cause to others. Mill
What is the offense principle?
An act that offends another person may be prohibited. Laws against pornography. Society should restrect individual liberty to prevent offense to others.
What is the principle of paternalism?
We have the obligation to protect others from harm. Morally offensive content should be controlled to prevent harm to self.
What is the principle of legal moralism?
Something may be prohibited because it is simply immoral. Religious-based.
Offensive content should be controlled in order to prevent immoral behavior or the violation of societal norms.
Define obscenity according to the courts.
-one finds that the work appeals to purient interests
-the work depicts sexual conduct specifically defined by state law
-it lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
List the different types of bias.
-Commercial bias
-Temporal bias
-visual bias
-bad news bias
-narrative bias
-status quo bias
-fairness bias
-expediency bias
-glory bias
what is temporal bias?
The news media are biased toward the immediate.
What are three moral values for an ethics of privacy for media practitioners?
1) Self-respect for persons as an end in itself.
2) Social utility
3) Justice
What are the two sets of ethical guidelines for radio producers?
What is QER?
Qualified expectation of reality
What are the two theories of stereotypes?
Cultivation and expectancy
What is cultivation theory?
The media is powerful in how we view the world.
What is the expectancy theory?
We believe in the cultivated theory and stereotypes portrayed in the media.
What is social responsibility?
Organizations and institutions are obligated to society.
What are three ethical perspectives in PR?
1) Social responsibility
2) Professional
3) Personal
What are the two roles associated with PR?
1) Communication Technician
2) Communication Manager
What are the 4 criteria for a occupation to be a profession?
1) Expertise
2) Autonomy
3) Commitment
4) Responsibility
What were the 3 learned professions?
Law, Medicine and Clergy
What are the 2 PR professional associations?
PRSA, IABC (International Association of Business Communicators)
What are the characteristics of a profession?
-A set of professional values
-A strong professional organization
-Adherence to professional norms
-An intellectual tradition and an established body of knowledge
-Technical skills acquired through professional training
What are are consequential theories?
Theories which emphasize the consequences of one's own behavior
What are non-consequential theories?
Rules-based theories
What are the two rules of ethical PR?
-An organization must take the consequences on publics into account when it makes strategic decisions.
-There's a moral obligation to communicate with those publics even though the organization cannot always accommodate the public.
Who are PR practitioners morally obligated to?
Themselves, their clients, their organization or employer, their profession and colleagues, and to society.
What are the economic benefits of advertising?
-sustaining honest and ethically responsible competition that contributes to economic growth
-informing people of new products and services
-creation of new jobs
What are some ideas to improve advertising?
-voluntary ethical codes
-public involvement
-public authorities
-Keep the public informed about the world of advertising
-Advertisers themselves can act ethically in their professions
What are some ethical guidelines for photographers when taking pictures?
-If it's a private moment, does it need to be seen?
-Will the person being photographed be in greater trauma?
-Is your distance unobtrusive?
-Are you acting with compassion and sensitivity?
What does SPJ says about ethics in audio?
Audio bites should "not misrepresent. They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents out of context."
What does RTNDA say about ethics in audio?
-"Don't add sounds that do no exist unless it is clear to the audience that they have been added in the edit room."
-"Don't add sounds that you obtained at another location or time if adding the sounds might mislead the audience."
-"Don't add something to a story that didn't happen."
What is audio delay?
The ability to "dump" up to 10 sec. of live audio, and "catch up" to real time.
What is audio time management?
The ability to "compress," fit a 60 sec. bites into 48 sec.
What is voice modeling?
Ability to alter pitch, pacing, infliction of vocal tracks.
What is commercial bias?
The news media are a money-making business?
What is visual bias?
TV biased toward visual depictions of news.
What is bad news bias?
Bad news is boring and does not photograph well.
That is narrative bias?
A story must have 2 sides by creating conflict and drama. Master narrative.
What is the status-quo bias?
"The system works." One way is the only way.
What is fairness bias?
Ethical journalistic practice must be fair and not favor.
What is expediency bias?
Journalism is a competitive, deadline-driven profession. You get the first source available and not necessarily the best source available.
What is glory bias?
Inserting yourself into the story you cover.
What does Kant say about truth?
He said truth is fundamental to society's functioning.
What does Mill say about truth?
He and the utilitarians in truth would say lying is permitted if it promotes the greater good.
What does Sissela Bok say about truth?
"principal of veracity"
Not all lies are condemned.
But they must only be used as a last resort.
Why is truth fundamental to society?
1) We depend on truth
2) Demostrated a respect for the person
3) Truth builds trust
4) It's essential to the democratic process
What are the two types of published defamation?
Slander and libel. Slander is spoken and libel is written.
What must a public and private person prove in a defamation case?
Private: negligence
Public: malice
What is Kant's test used for deception?
"Compelling reason test" or it must be used for a good reason
What does Mill say about deception?
He and Utilitarians believe deception must be used to further public interest.
What 2 methods do journalists use to be objective?
1) fairness to those concerned with the news
2) a professional process of information gathering that seeks fairness, completeness and accuracy.
What is the duty to benefit?
The special liberties granted to the press based on the expectation that the media will provide public benefits.
What is malpractice?
Negligence of professional standards that have caused damage.
What are Grunig's 4 models of PR practice?
1) Press agentry/publicity
2) Public information
3) 2-way asymetric
4) 2-way symetric
What are the 3 types of PR role functions?
In-house, agency, and consultant.
What are the 3 perspectives on stereotypes?
range, valence, and frequency