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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Homeostasis?
equilibrium in the body
What is neccessary for the body to maintain homeostasis?
water, and proper maintenance of water
Water is app. ______% of body weight?
60% in adults
45-55% in elderly
70-80% in infants
How much water is located inside cells?
Name the three fluid compartments in the body?
Name 3 functions of water in the body?
regulation of temp
lubrication for joints, membranes
carries oxygen to cells
transports nutrients, electrolytes
carries waste from cells
is a medium for food digestion
How much in lbs does 1L of water weigh?
2.2 lbs (1kg)
What are electrolytes?
substances that have molecules that split into ions when in water
Which ions are positively charged?
Anions are?
negatively charged ions
The ICF's main cation?
Na+ is the main cation for the?
Which process is involved in the movement of water?
Active transport is used to help which two important cations move against the concentration gradient?
Na+ & K+
What is the difference b/w osmolarity and osmolality?
Although they are used as the same term, osmolarity refers to fluids outside of the body and osmolality refers to fluids inside the body.
Which pressure refers to force within a fluid compartment?
Hydrostatic Pressure
Oncotic pressure is also refered to as?
colloidal osmotic pressure
Edema is?
a fluid shift into the interstitium
What is fluid spacing?
the distribution of fluid in the body
Name the term used when fluid collects in a portion of the body where it is unavailable for functional use?
Third spacing
Which regulation system assists in fluid balance by sensing a deficit and stimulating the release of ADH from the pituitary?
Hypothalamic Regulation
Which mechanism is crucial for the hypothalamic regulation to work?
The thirst mechanism
Which hormone does the posterior pituitary release that regulates water in the kidneys?
Name two conditions that cause alterations in the release of ADH.
SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate ADH)

Diabetes Insipidus
Which condition causes a reduction in the release of ADH?
Diabetes insipidus
Name one cause of SIADH?
brain injury
brain tumor
small cell lung cancer
What are the primary organs responsible for fluid regulation?
How much urine per day does the average adult produce?
Invisible vaporization of fluids from skin and lungs is?
insensible water loss
Name normal levels for K+, Mg2+, Na+, & Ca2+.
K+=3.5-5.5 mEq/L
Mg2+=1.5-2.5 mEq/L
Na+=135-145 mEq/L
Ca2+=4.5-5.5 mEq/L
Name the two main causes of Hyponatremia?
sodium loss or water gain
Name two things that could cause sodium loss?
Diarrhea, Vomiting, diuretics, burns, wound drainage
List 5 syptoms of hyponatremia due to water gain?
confusion, weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, weight gain, increased BP, increased CVP, muscle spasms, seizure, coma
Are seizures and coma also symptoms of hyponatremia due to sodium loss?
Intense thirst is a key symtom of?
Reasons for Hypernatremia include sodium gain or_____?
water loss
Would you use NaCl IV solutions to treat Hypernatremia?
No, the goal of Tx is to get rid of sodium and using NaCl or in other words Normal Saline would be adding more sodium into the system.
Name an IV solution that would be used for Hypernatremia?
What is another name for Fluid Volume Deficit?
What is the goal of Tx for FVD?
correct underlying cause
replace water and electrolytes
What other than water would you want to remove from the body in FVE?
Which electrolyte is responsible for functions in nerve impulses, cardiac rhythms, and smooth muscle contractions?
Which annoying leg problem can come from not having enough potassium (hypokalemia)?
leg cramps
When there is not enough K+, the heart is affected, which comes first? a fast irregular heart rate or a slow heart rate
a fast irregular one
Name a cardiac medication that could cause Hyperkalemia?
ACE Inhibitors
Why does Hyperkalemia cause Diarrhea?
The body is trying to get rid of the extra potassium.
How does the body obtain calcium?
ingestion of calcium containing foods
Calcium has an inverse relation ship with phosporous, what does this mean?
If one is at higher levels, the other is at lower ones and vice versa
Which gland promotes the hormone that regulates calcium? And what is the name of the hormone?
parathyroid gland
Neck surgery causes which alteration in calcium?
Would an increase or a decrease in PTH cause hypocalcemia?
What is an early sign of hypocalcemia?
numbness and tingling around mouth (circumoral parasthesia)
Describe the two main clinical signs of tetany?
Chvostek's sign is when there is a contraction of the facial muscle by tapping the facial nerve in front of the ear.
Trousseau's sign is when there are carpal spasms brought on by inflating a BP cuff on the arm.
Which calcium imblance is Tetany associated with?
Why would a person have bone pain with hypercalcemia?
The calcium came out of the bone and into the blood stream.
What med would you give to a person with electrocardiogram changes due to Hypercalcemia?
Calcium Channel Blockers
Is phosphate essential for the function of white blood cells or red blood cells?
What is the major route for Phosphorous excretion?
the kidneys
What muscle problem does hyperphosphatemia have that also is associated with hypocalcemia?
Name a cause for Hyperphosphatemia?
renal failure
enemas containing phosphorous
excessive ingestion of milk
large vit-D intake
Hypophosphatemia can be cause by?
alcohol withdrawal
recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis
respiratory alkalosis
Where is 50-60% of the body's magnesium contained?
Hypomagnesemia causes CNS _____?
Hypermagnesemia is likely to only occur with?
an increased intake along with renal failure
in pregnant women on mag sulfate for eclampsia
Is learning F&E's a big pain?
Yes, but worth it!