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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Classification of Joints
*fibrous
*cartilaginous
*synovial
By structure and Function
*structural= binding material
*functional= amount of movement allowed at the joint
Fibrous Joints
*Bones are joined by fibrous tissue
*length of fibers = movement
Cartilaginous Joints
*synchondrosis=bar or plate
*symphysis=fusion of articular cartilage
Articulating bones are connected by cartigage
*no joint cavity
*
Synovial Joints
Articulating bones are seperated by a fluid-containing joint cavity
Sutures
Seams that occur between the bones of the skull
Synostoses
During middle age the fibrous tissue ossifies in the skull and the skull bones fuse together
Syndesmoses
Bones that are connected by a ligament, cord or band of fibrous tissue.
Synovial Joints
*fluid filled cavity
*all are diarthrotic
General features
*articular cartilage (hyaline)
*joint cavity (fluid)
*articular cavity capsule, synovium
*synovial fluid
Reinforcing ligaments
*intrinsic
*extracapsular
*intracapsular
*part of fibrous capsule
*outside of capsule
*deep to capsuleand covered by synovium
Fat pads
Between fibrous capsule and synovial membrane
Articular disks
Improve fit between bones and increase joint stability
Bursae
Flattened synovial membrane sacs filled with fluid
Tendon sheath
Elongated bursae wrapped around tendons
*reduces friction
Stabilizing factors in joints
*articular surfaces are shaped to fit
*
ligaments
*more ligaments= more stability
*if stretched stays stretched
*muscle tone
Muscles attached to bone allow for movement of bone
*origin= immovable bone
insertions= moveable bone
Movements along body axis
*transverse
*frontal
*sagittal
Movement of Synovial Joints
ROM
Gliding=one surface slips over another
ex: tarsals and carpals
Movement of synovial Joints
*angular=change angle
ex:flexion,extension,dorsiflexion,abduction,adduction
*Rotation=turning on long axis
ex:medial rotation, lateral rotation
Special Synovial Movements
pronation,supination
inversion,eversion
protration,retraction
Types of Synovial Joints
*Plane= surfaces flat,gliding,
*Hinge= extesion and flexion
Types of Synovial Joints
*Pivot=bony projection fits into ring
rotation
Types of Synovial Joints
*Ball and Socket
spherical Head
greatest ROM
flexion,extension
*condyloid or elliptical
extension,flexion
*Saddle=saddle and rider,
opposition = thumb
Sprain
*ligament stretched or torn
*slow to heal
*rupture requires surgery
Strain
*damage to joint tissues
*swelling, RICE
Dislocation
*bones out of alignment
reduction required
Subluxation
*loss of use of the joint
Osteoarthritis
*wear and tear
Rheumatoid Arthritis
*autoimmune disease
*begins in the synovitis
Gouty Arthritis
*Uric acid crystals deposited in joint
*inflammatory reaction occurs
*affects great toe first
Treatments
*NSAIDS
*Heat
*Motion
Types of Muscles
*skeletal
*smooth
*cardiac
Skeletal Muscle
*attached to bones
*straited voluntary
*cylindrical,multinucleated
Smooth Muscle
*visceral tubes and hollow organs
*non-straited, involuntary
*spindle shaped, uninucleated
Cardiac Muscle
*Heart
*Striated,involuntary
*branched intercalated disks
Charicteristics of Muscle Tissue
*excitable
*contractile
*extensible
*elastic
Muscle Functions
*produce monvement
*maintain posture
*stabilize joints
*generate heat
Skeletal Muscle
Nerve and blood Supply
*well supplied with each
*enter at center of muscle
*branch profusely through CT
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
*CT wrappings
*endomysium
*perimysium
*epimysium
*deep fascia
Muscle attachment to bone
*origin
*insertion
*direct attachment
*apomeurosis
*indirect attchment
Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
*carcolemma=cell membrane
*sarcoplasm=cytoplasm
-glycogen & myoglobin
*myofibrils=cytoskeleton
-80% of cell, over lapping myofibrils
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
*smooth endoplasmic reticulum
*houses CA+
*surrounds each myofibril
Motor Unit
*Axon and all muscles it serves
Graded Muscle response
*not counting how many but how fast
Muscle Fatigue
*Muscle will not contract even though asked to