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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
movements of synovial joints
gliding and angular
(simple back and forth, and chnage of angles.)
three factors which determine range of mobility of a joint
structure of bones at articulation
strength of joint capsule (strength, tautness of associated tendons)
size, arrangement and actions of muscles spanning joint
factors which can limit range of movement at a joint
body conditioning
excessive obesity
fibrous cartilage pads in knee. cushions and guides bones.
temporomandibular pad
fibrocartilagenous pad - cushions/guides bones
tendon sheath
modified bursae - surrounds, lubricates tendons.
categories based on
structure & motion permitted
joint inflammation caused by trauma, bacterial infection, metabolic disorders.
swayback - exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature
humpback. exaggerated posterior thoracic curve
abnormal lateral spinal curvature
function of intervertebral disc during motion and weightbearing
flattens during weightbearing, slides during motion. Acts as shock absorber.
condyloid joint movements permitted
biaxial movement in two planes
condyloid joint structure
oval condyle of one bone articulates with eliptical cavity of another
gliding joint examples
intercarpal/intertarsal joints, sternoclavicular, articular processes of vertebral column
gliding joint movements permitted
sliding back and forth movement with little rotation
gliding joint structure
flat or slightly curved (convex/concave) articulating surfaces
hinge joint examples
knee, elbow, joints of phalanges
hinge joint movements permitted
monaxial bending motion in one plane– like the hinge of a door
hinge joint structure
convex surface of one bone fits into concave surface of another – most common synovial joints
pivot joint examples
atlantoaxial joint (turning head side to side), proximal radioulnar joint (turning door knob)
pivot joint movements permitted
rotation about a central axis
pivot joint structure
conical surface of one bone articulates with depression of another
saddle joint examples
carpometacarpal joint of thumb - allows opposable thumb
saddle joint movements permitted
wide range of movements
saddle joint structure
concave and convex surface on each articulating bone
ball and socket joint examples
shoulder(glenohumeral) and hip(coxal) joints.
condyloid joint examples
radiocarpal joint, metacarpophalangeal joint
ball and socket joint movements permitted
movement in all planes and rotation
ball and socket joint structure
rounded surface of one bone articulates with cuplike socket of another
what are the two classification systems for joints?
structural, and functional
what are the three structural classifications of joints, and what do they mean?
synarthroses: not moveable-skull bones
amphiarthroses: somewhat moveable - inferior tibiofibular joint
diarthroses: freely moveable - shoulder.
what are the three structural classifications of joints?
fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
what is a fibrous joint
joint held together by fibrous connective tissue
what are the two kinds of fibrous joints?
syndesmosis and sutures
what is a suture
synarthroses (doesn't move)
bones separated by thin layer of fibrous tissue continuous with periosteum.
what prohibits movement at sutures?
fibrous connections and interlocking serations (dovetails)
what is a squamous suture?
a suture where the edge of one bone overlaps that which it articulates with.
what is a plane suture
where the edges of the bone don't overlap
what is a syndesmosis
it's an amphiarthroses (slightly moveable joint) joint where bones are united by a thick layer of dense fibrous tissue. (interosseous membranes in antebrachium and leg.)
what are two types of cartilaginous joints
symphysis and synchondrosis.
what is a cartilaginous joint?
cartilage between bones, no joint cavity. little or no movement.
mainly for strength and stability, not mobility.
what is a synchondrosis and give an example
an immovable union involving hyaline cartilage: costal cartilage of thoracic cage.
what is a symphysis?
bones covered with hyaline cartilage, and disc of fibrocartilage in between. some movement allowed: symphysis pubis and intervertebral discs.
what is the purpose of a synovial joint?
summarize the synovial joint
Synovial joints consist of:
-articular cartilage over the uniting bones
- a strong ligamentous fibrous joint capsule, containing a joint cavity lined by a synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid that lubricates the joint.

They are highly movable joints, well supported by ligaments and tendons.
what movement is permitted at the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb?
saddle joint, so wide range of movements.
what movements are permitted at the metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand?
these are condyloid joints, so wide range of movements: flex,ext, abd, add, circumd.
what movements are permitted at the interphalangeal joints?
hinge joint, so flexion and extension - movement in one plane.
what is special about the long head of biceps brachii to the shoulder joint?
the tendon within the joint, but it has its own tendon sheath, and is outside the synovial membrane: extrasynovial, but intercapsular.
what are four reasons for dislocations of the shoulder?
strut system subject to constant gravity, increases distances between articular surfaces.
-articular surfaces very different sizes.
- lack of bony support
- glenoid labrum and capsular ligaments are weak supports.
dislocations usually happen anteriorly/inferiorly, through weakness in rotator cuff musculotendinous sleeve.
what is the "carrying angle?"
the lateral deviation of the forearm when elbow extended, forearm supinated.
what is the name of the ligament which crosses the acetebular notch and completes the acetebulum articular surface?
transverse ligament.
what is the purpose of the acetebular labrum?
deepens the socket and holds the femur head securely in place.
what are the three main ligaments of the hip joint capsule?
iliofemoral - anterior.(thickest and strongest)
pubofemoral - inferiorly
ischiofemoral - posteriorly
what does the iliofemoral ligament do?
maintains trunk-thigh alignment and prevents anterior dislocation of femur
what does the pubofemoral ligament do?
limits abduction of hip.
what is the main purpose of the hip joint ligaments?
prevent hyperextension. (they tighten as hip is extended.)
what is the most common ankle injury?
inversion injury (sprain)