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75 Cards in this Set

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In osmosis Differing #'s of solutes molecules or ions on two sides of the CM
Difference in H2O concentration
what helps maintain differences on either side of the biological membrane?
(CM feature)
Selective permeability
Solute concentration of a solution is called osmolariy, what is that formula?
osmoles/Liters
the side with high osmolarity
hyperosmotic
the side with lower osmolarity
hypoosmotic
both sides have equal osmolarity
isoosmotic
Osmoconformers
when cellular and extracellular match osmolarity of the envt.
osmoregulators
use control mechanisms to keep the osmolarity of cellular and extracellular fluids the same
What must animals excrete to maintain osmolarity
water
In osmoregulation and excretion what are the 4 step process of the tubules?
1. Filtration
2 reabsoption
secretion
excretion
Filtration
nonselective mvmt of some water and solutes into the proximal end
reabsorption
some molecules and ions are transported by transport epi back to the body fluids
secretion
selective process where small molecules and ions transported from body into tubules
excretion
wastes are released into the environment from the distal end of the tubule
In all vertebrates and many invertebrates where are the excretory tubules found?
kidneys
3 nitrogenous products our metabolism
Ammonia, urea, uric acid
ammonia
removes amine groups from amino acids toxic
urea
nontoxic and used by all mammals and many other creatures
uric acid
used to conserve water and is used by some reptiles and birds instead of ammonia and urea, nontoxic. needs more energy to be made, but much more efficient (4x as much nitrogen)
Are invertebrates osmoconformers or osmoregulators?
both
what types of invertebrates are osmoregulators which are osmoconformers?
most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers
all freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates are osmoregulators.
Marine osmoconformers vs freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates
marine: easy to excrete harder to keep in
terrestrial:need to spend energy to maintain their internal fluids hyperosmotic
of the osmoregulators of invertebrates how are freshwater invertebrates different
they expend more energy to excrete water
Of the osmoregulators of invertebrates how do terrestrial osmoregulators maintain ?
They replace lost fluids and obtain salts.
Flatworms and larval mollusks have a special tubule called: describe it's A&P
protonephridia
2 branching network where some fluids are reabsorbed and some are secreted
special tubule in annelids and most adult molluks describe it's A&P
metanephrida
fullen like proximal end surrounded with cilia that admits hemolyph where reabsorption and secretion takes place
special tubules in insects and other arthropods A&P
melpighian tubules
closed proximal ends immersed in hemolymph
not filter; just excretory
what are the excretory tubules of the kidney?
nephrons
Urinary system 4 parts
kidneys ureter bladder urethra
Renal vein
filtered blood is routed away from the kidneys via this vessel
what types of invertebrates are osmoregulators which are osmoconformers?
most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers
all freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates are osmoregulators.
Marine osmoconformers vs freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates
marine: easy to excrete harder to keep in
terrestrial:need to spend energy to maintain their internal fluids hyperosmotic
of the osmoregulators of invertebrates how are freshwater invertebrates different
they expend more energy to excrete water
Of the osmoregulators of invertebrates how do terrestrial osmoregulators maintain ?
They replace lost fluids and obtain salts.
Flatworms and larval mollusks have a special tubule called: describe it's A&P
protonephridia
2 branching network where some fluids are reabsorbed and some are secreted
special tubule in annelids and most adult molluks describe it's A&P
metanephrida
fullen like proximal end surrounded with cilia that admits hemolyph where reabsorption and secretion takes place
special tubules in insects and other arthropods A&P
melpighian tubules
closed proximal ends immersed in hemolymph
not filter; just excretory
what are the excretory tubules of the kidney?
nephrons
Urinary system 4 parts
kidneys ureter bladder urethra
Renal vein
filtered blood is routed away from the kidneys via this vessel
ureter
tube from kidney to bladder
urethra
tube from bladder to outside
what prevents water from just leaving the bladder and going out the urethra
2 spincters there
1 is automatic
1 is controlled consciously
Bowman's capsule
infolded region that cups around a ball of blood capillaries
glomerulus
where filtration occurs covered by the bowman's capsule
Loop of henle
composed of a proximal and distal end that is responsible for creating a concentration gradient important for reabsorption
what is different about the kidney's capillariy system than other capillary beds
There is a "portal" system and other beds called peritubular capillaries that reabsorb from the proximal and distal convoluted tubules
Which 3 features contribute to the hyperosmotic feature of urine
Loop of henle
differences in the permeability of the nephron
A gradient in the concentration of molecules of the ICF of the kidney

These 3 features help conserve nutrients and water balance salts and concentrate wastes.
2 factors that help maintain pressure driving fluid into the bowman's capsule
afferent (big) arteriole
efferent (smaller) arteriole
how much does the bowman's capsule filter each day
180L out of 1400 L of blood
In the bowmna's capsule filtration takes place what happens in the rest of the nephron?
Reabsorption and secretion
aquaporins
transport proteins that aid in osmotic movement of fluid in the proximal convoluted tubule
why does the proximal convoluted tubule have burshboder ciliated microvillii
What does it reabsorb?
increase surface area
67% of the Na, K and Cl Ions 65% of the water 50% of the urea all glucose and other nutrient molecules
an example of active transport into the proximal convoluted tubule
H+ ions
an example of passive secretion in the proximal convoluted tubule
detoxified poisons
The descending degment of the loop of helne reabsorbs what?
has aquaporins which allow rapid reabsorption of water
ascending segment of the loop of henle
concentrate wastes even more, and move Na Cl out via passive transport (at the top via active transport)
reabsorption of salt ions.
Loop of henle function
conserve water nutrients ions and return them to body fluids
Urea and other nitrogenous wastes are concentrated in the filtrate
in the distal convoluted tubule what removes additional water from the fluid in the tubule?
trnasport epithelium
in the distal convoluted tubule do more ions move out of the tube or in the tube? what happens as a result of the water movement
More water moves out by osmosis
What helps concentrate the urine collecting all the wastes in the filtrate?
Collecting ducts which descend downward from the cortex through the medulla of the kidney.
Kangaroo rat
most efficient waterconserving terrestrial mammals
90% of the water supply is generated from oxidative reactions in the cells of the rat
marine mammals
eat salty foods and make concentrated urine
How is the kidney controlled (2 types / 3 ways)
2 types
1. autoregulation
2. hormonal
1 auto, 2 hormones=3 ways
Autoregulation of the kidneys
btw glomerulus and the nephron; responds instantly to keep filtration rate constant during small variations in BP. there are signal receptors in the juxtaglomerular apparatus
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
has signal receptors that monitor bp
also secrete renin
RAAS
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Balance of water with those antagonistical hormones
how can Na+ be low? several reasons
excessive vomiting, heavy sweating, not enough in diet
Low blood Na+ levels
RAAS
juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes renin >angiotensin I > agII > inc Blood pressure also stimulates the release of ADH by the neuro hypophysis which inc Na+ reabsorption
Na + levels too high
renin inhibited, at and aldosterone is not secreted.
ANF in heart helps inhibit renin
nonmammalirian vertebrates with similar kidney functions
most vertbrates don't conserve water via high concentrated urine, maybe a few aquatic birds do.
Fish w respect to osmotic regulation
gills have chloride cells which kick out Cl- ions
rectal salt gland
in sharks they get rid of excess salts
marine fish vs freshwater fish/amphibians w respect to osmotic regulation
marine fish conserve water excrete salts
freshwater fish excrete water conserve salts
reptiles and birds w respect to osmoregulation
they excrete nitrogenous wats in the form of uric acid crystals. This helps conserve water