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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How does heparin work?
catalyzes the activation of antithrombin III
What is the antidote for heparin?
protamine sulfate
What is the antidote for warfarin?
IV Vit K, fresh frozen plasma
How does warfarin work?
interfers with nl synthesis and y-carboxylation of it K-dependent clotting factors
Which anticoagulant can be used during pregnancy?
heparin, low molecular weight heparin
How do thrombolytics work?
aids in the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin
When shouldn't thrombolytics be used?
actively bleeding, h/o of intracranial bleeding, surgery, severe HTN
What is the antidote for thrombolytics?
aminocaproic acid--inhibitor of fibrinolysis
Which lab value does ASA change?
bleeding time
What ADR does clopidogril or ticlopidine have?
neutropenia
What is the MOA of clopidogril or ticlopidine?
I platelet aggregation by irreversibly blocking ADP receptors, prevent glycoptn IIb/IIIa expression
When are clopidogril and ticlopidine used?
acute coronary syndrome, coronary stenosis, dec recurrance of thrombotic stroke
How does abciximab work?
monoclonal Ab that binds to glycoptn IIb/IIIa R on activated platelets
When is abciximab used?
acute coronary syndromes, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
What drug can rescue a pt from myelosuppression?
leucovorin
How does methotrexate work?
folic acid analog, I dihydrofolate reductase--dec DNA synthesis
What is methotrexate used for?
lymphona, leukemia, chorioCA, sarcoma, abortion, ectopic pregnancy,psoriasis
How does 5-FU work?
pyrimidine analog, I DNA synthesis
WHat is 5-FU used for?
colon CA, solid tumors, basal cell CA of the skin
What are the side effects of 5-FU?
myelosuppression, photosensitivity
What can be used to rescue a pt with myelosuppression from 5-FU?
thymidine
Which CA drug should not be combined with 6-mercaptopurine?
allopurinal, degraded by same enzyme
How does 6-mercaptopurine work?
inhibits de novo purine synthesis
What is 6-mercaptopurine used for?
leukemia and lymphoma
How does cytarabine work?
I DNA polymerase
What do Ptn C and Ptn S do?
inactivate V and VIII
What is Ptn C and Ptn S dependent on?
vit K
What does antithrombin III do?
inactivates thrombin, IXa, Xa, XIa
What activates antithrombin III?
heparin
What does a factor V leiden mutation cause?
resistance to activated ptn C
What activates prekallikrein?
factor XIIa
What activates HMWK?
kallikrien
What does bradykinin do?
inc vasodilation, perm, and pain
What activates plasminogen?
kallikrein
What does kallikrein do?
activate plasminogen, activation of bradykinin
What happens when Rh+ blood is transfused into an Rh- individual?
massive IgG production
What do incompatible blood transfusions result in?
immun response, hemolysis, renal failure, shock, death
When do you see spherocytes?
hereditary spherocytosis, auntoimmune hemolysis
When do you see elliptocytes?
hereditary elliptocytosis
When do you see macro-ovalocyte?
megaloblastic anemia, BM failure
When do you see helmet cell, schistocyte?
DIC, traumatic hemolysis
When do you see sickle cells?
sickle cell anemia
When do you see teardrop cell?
myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis
When do you see acanthocyte?
spiny appearance in abetalipoproteinemia
When do you see traget cell? HALT
HbC disease, Asplenia, Liver dz, Thalassemia
When do you see poikilocytes?
nonuniform shapes in TTP/HUS, microvascular damage, DIC
When do you see Burr cells?
TTP/HUS
What four conditions do you see psammoma bodies?
papillary adenoCa of thyroid, serous papillary cystadenoCA of the ovary, meningioma, malignant mesothelioma
What is the most common bleeding disorder?
von Willebrand's dz
What is the most common Hodgkin's lymphoma?
Nodular sclerosing
Who does nodular sclerosis affect?
20year old females
What is the prognosis of NS Hodgkin's
good
Which Hodgkin's dz has the worst prognosis?
lymphocytic deplete
bcl2, t14,18
follicular lymphoma
t(11,14)
mantle cell lymphoma
What are two lymphomas assoc with childhood?
burkitts, lymphoblastic lymphoma
t(9,22)
CML
t(8,14)
Burkitt's lymphoma
t(15,17)
M3 of AML
t(11,22)
ewing's sarcoma
What are aure rods?
peroxidase positive cyptoplasmic inclusions in granulocytes and myeloblast
When do you see auer rods?
acute promyelocytic leukmeia, M3
What can a release of Auer rods do?
DIC