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90 Cards in this Set

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What was the Pale of Settlement?
After Poland was partitioned in the 1770’s, a huge population of Jews fell to the Russians. Russians restricted Jews to live in an area they called the “Pale of Settlement”. Czar Alexander I further restricted Jews by packing them into towns and expelling them from the villages, thus isolating them from the peasants.
How was the Russian army used to assimilate Jews?
Czar Nicholas I came up with idea of riding the country of Jews by enlisting a quota of Jewish boys for army. Normal term for 18 year olds was 25 years but boys as young as 12 could be taken for training. Efforts were made to convert the boys to Russian Orthodoxy during training. Usually the poorest were taken because the Jewish community leaders would not want their boys to go.
What are three distinctive features of Hassidism (that make it different than Jewish Orthodoxy in general)?
1. All are equal before God: the ignorant and learned the same. Purity of heart is superior to study.
2. Life should be enjoyed instead of depriving one’s self.
3. Communion with God and divine grace available to all Jews.
Hassidic Tales, #10 - what does it mean?
I believe that when the Baal Shem Tov said that the “…prayers are dead.” He meant that they were not heard by God because they were not from a pure heart. The boy who played the flute was “slow-witted” but was passionate and had a pure heart. His playing was heard by God and “the heavens [were] penetrated” allowing the prayers of others to be heard by God also. This example just shows how Purity of heart is superior to study for Hassidism.
Tell me 3 factoids about the Protocols of the Elders of Zion - origins, what is pretends to be, what is says.
It was first published in a St. Petersburg daily newspaper. It is thought to have been written by Russian reactionaries. It pretends to be the minutes of an international Jewish conspiracy meeting to control the world. It is written as if to be read by a new Elder, instructing them how to take over the world. They want to trick the gentiles into doing their will. They will do this by encouraging radically liberal ideals and taking over the media.
What was the Nazi hierarchy of different races from superior to inferior?
Aryans, Mediterranean, Slavic, Blacks, Jews
When did Hitler become Chancellor of Germany?
1933
What date and event marks the beginning of WWII?
September 1st, 1939 – German invasion of Poland
According to the First Racial Definition of 1933, who was a non-Aryan?
Anyone who is a descendant of a non-Aryan, especially a Jewish parent or grandparent.
What did the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 prohibit?
It prohibited intermarriage between Jews and Germans. The laws also stripped Jews of German citizenship.
How did the Nuremberg Laws effect the citizenship of Jews in Germany
It stripped Jews of German citizenship and all civil and political rights.
When and what was Krystallnacht?
November 9-10th, 1938. “Night of Broken Glass”. Jewish businesses and synagogues throughout Germany were damaged or destroyed and Jewish individuals were beaten in a nationwide pogrom. Government acted as if the Jews caused the damaged and fined the Jewish community, imposed more anti-Jewish regulations, expelled Jewish children from schools, and started putting Jews in concentration camps
What did Krystallnacht signify for the Jews of Germany?
It signified the end of Jewish cultural and economic life in Germany.
What were Einsatzgruppen and what did they do? (see SH, but also Johnson, 146)
Aka “action groups”. These were mobile killing squads belonging to the SS designed to murder Soviet commissars, communists, partisans, Jews, and gypsies in the new territory that the Germans began to control. They followed the army and rounded up and killed all the Jews they found.
What happened at Babi Yar?
Germans and Ukrainians murdered 33,000 Jews.
Read the autobiography of Rudolf Hoess, pp.143-145. Who was he?
He was the first commandant of Auschwitz in charge of the concentration camps.
Why did Hoess look forward to the use of gas as opposed to other means of murder?
The other means of murder usually was shooting. He would rather not have to see people suffer and know that they didn’t have to suffer. The use of the gas killed people very quick.
If Hoess felt remorse for what he did, why didn't he show it?
At first, he felt that his superiors were always right and he should trust them fully. He later had doubts but suppressed them and appeared cold and indifferent so that his subordinates would not see his true emotions.
From the selection by Paul Johnson: How many people could be murdered in 24 hours at Auschwitz?
60,000
Why does Johnson think most Germans knew what happened to the Jews?
Almost a million of them were in the SS and over a million worked in the railways. They would see the trains running at night full of Jews. Also many watches, pens, and clothes from the victims were showing up in large numbers. Johnson says that the recipients knew roughly where these came from and did little to protest.
How was Austria's behavior regarding the Jews?
More anti-Semitic than the Germans. Commanded death camps and mobile killing squads.
How was Romania's behavior regarding the Jews?
Worse in some ways than the Austrians and Germans. Government followed Hitler’s anti-Jewish policies closely. They were more cruel and mercenary in their killing of the Jews.
How was Denmark's behavior regarding the Jews?
Transported almost entire Jewish community of 5,000 into Sweden.
How was Bulgaria's behavior regarding the Jews?
???Don’t know???
How was Finland's behavior regarding the Jews?
Refused to yield their 2,000 Jews to Hitler.
Why didn't the U.S. absorb the Jews of Europe?
We could have accommodated a large number but we didn’t because of public hostility and anti-semitism.
"And, for the Nazi war-effort, it was from the first to last a self-inflicted wound." What does Johnson mean by this?
He means that the Holocaust was one of the reasons that Hitler was losing the war because it was fighting against itself.
In what way did the Nazi war against the Jews undermine the Nazi effort to win the war?
They had too many resources tied up in the Holocaust and were killing their highly skilled Jewish workers.
Name three reasons why Jews did not mount an effective resistance movement. Be able to give me a good sentence for each, maybe with an example.
1. Many generations of mass migration of the most ambitious, militant, and energetic Jews out of E. Europe left the region emasculated.
2. Jewish religious training encouraged passivity. The Hasidic Jews believed in martyrdom for God’s glory. They celebrated before entering the gas rooms because they knew they were about to meet the Messiah.
3. Some Jews were compliant because they thought that would save lives. One man said that when the Germans ask for a thousand Jews he hands them over because if he doesn’t they will take many thousands.
What is Zionism?
Zionism is the aspiration to secure a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine, guaranteed by public law.
What does "Aliyah" mean?
Literally, “Going up”. It is a wave of immigration to Israel.
What were the accomplishments of the "Second Aliyah"?
They developed agricultural institutions: the collective settlement (Kibbutz) and the cooperative settlement (moshav). They also founded Tel Aviv, the first all Jewish city in Palestine.
When did the “Second Aliyah” occur? Between what years?
1905-1914
What was the political orientation of the people involved in the Second Aliyah?
Socialism.
Who was Eliezer Ben Yehudah?
Jewish man who devoted his life to the restoration of the Jews to Israel and the revival of Hebrew as a spoken language. He decided to only talk to his wife in Hebrew.
What did Eliezer Ben Yehudah accomplish?
He encouraged Hebrew to be spoken in schools, compiled what is still the most comprehensive dictionary of Hebrew, and founded and chaired the Hebrew Language Committee.
What was the Balfour Declaration?
It was the declaration made by British foreign secretary Lord Balfour that the British government would aid the Jews in establishing a Jewish state in Palestine.
What year was the Balfour Declaration?
1917
But wait, the British had promised some part of Palestine to who (besides the Jews)?
The Hashemites.
What two nations were the consequence of the land promised by British?
?? (Israelis and Palestinians?)
What was the White Paper of 1939?
It restricted Jewish immigration to Palestine and in effect, rescinded the Balfour Declaration.
What was going on in Europe in 1939?
WWII
What do we mean by the expression "British Mandate"?
It was the region of Palestine involved in the transfer of power as described in part by the Balfour Declaration.
What years does the British Mandate apply to?
1920-1948
What did the United Nations propose in 1947 to do about the problem of Palestine?
The Partition Plan which would separate Palestine into an Arab and a Jewish state. But the arabs rejected it.
What happened to the land intended for the Palestinian state - which nation/s absorbed it?
From the map it looks like Jordan absorbed most of the land, and Israel absorbed the rest. But this changed after the six day war.
Read the Proclamation of the State of Israel (Reader- 165-166). What does it say about the Arab citizens of Israel and their rights?
It encourages the Arabs to be peaceful and be part of development. Their rights include full and equal citizenship and representation.
What does the Proclamation of the State of Israel say to their neighboring countries in the Middle East?
That Israel will contribute to peaceful progress and development of Middle East.
Take out the piece by Benny Morris. How many Palestinians became refugees, according to Morris?
700,000
According to the somewhat official Israeli position, why did the Arabs flee?
Arabs had fled voluntarily, or because the Palestinian and Arab leaders had ordered them to leave.
What do Palestinians say caused the Arabs to leave?
They say that they were systematically expelled by Israel.
What did Gamel Abdel Nasser do to bring about the 1967 Six Day War?
He massed troups in the Sinai, expelled the U.N. Emergency Force, and blocked the shipping route to Eilat.
Who was Gamel Abdel Nasser?
He headed Egypt and his vision was of Arab unity and expansion.
According to Morris, what were the factors that led to the mass flight of Palestinians in 1947/1948? Name 3.
1. Palestinian society had little social or political cohesion.
2. Many Palestinians were very poor and had little connection with the land.
3. Some Palestinians feared Jewish attacks.
Why didn't the Arab states absorb the Palestinian refugees (from 6 day war)?
They wanted an excuse to continue to fight Israel.
Why didn't Israel take Arab refugee's back (from 6 day war)?
Israel needed their land for new immigrants and because they saw them as a threat.
What territories did Israel acquire as the result of the 6 day war?
Sinai peninsula, west bank, and golon heights.
Israel was now _________ times its original size (after 6 day war).
3
What was Israel's new problem as the result of the Six Day war?
Israel now occupied land containing 1.2 million Arabs so hostility became a new problem.
What does PLO stand for?
Palestinian Liberation Organization
What was the goal of the PLO?
The liberation of Arabs from Israeli domination, the destruction of Israel, and the establishment of a homeland for Palestinian Arabs.
Who was head of PLO?
Yasir Arafat
In what kinds of activities did the PLO engage?
Terrorist activities such as bombings, hijackings, kidnappings, and killings.
What happened at Munich in 1972?
Israeli Olympic athletes were murdered in their hotel by the PLO.
What Arab countries participated in the 1973 Yom Kippur War?
Egypt and Syria
What did Ariel Sharon accomplish in the Yom Kippur War?
He became famous for forcing Egypt into cease fire.
What did Anwar Sadat do in 1977 in order to end Egypt's state of war with Israel?
He went to Israel to address the Knesset in order to negotiate peace.
What did Israel do as a result of these negotiations? (Camp David Accords)
Israel gave back the Sinai peninsula to Egypt in exchange for full recognition and normalization of relations between the two states.
Tell me about the Entebbe incident. What date did it occur?
July 4th, 1976 – PLO hijacked Air France flight and diverted it to Entebbe Uganda. An Israeli commando unit got a hold of the plane and flew the hostages to Israel.
According to the Oslo Accords, who would Israel recognize as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people?
Yasir Arafat (PLO)
What three leaders participated in the Oslo Accords?
Yitzhak Rabin, Yasir Arafat, and Bill Clinton
What was Israel supposed to do as the result of these Oslo Accords?
Israel was supposed to do a phased retreat from territory which Palestinians would then take gradual control of.
Who was subsequently assassinated as a result of the Oslo Accords?
Yitzhak Rabin
What is Hamas?
Extremist fundamentalist muslim organization. Popular amoung Palestinians in Gaza and W. Bank. Known for generous payments to families of suicide bombers.
Who is Mahmoud Abbas?
President of the Palestinian Authority?
What area did Israel hand over to the PA last summer?
The gaza strip.
What is the Wall?
It is a wall surrounding the west bank to prevent Palestinian suicide bombers from entering Israel.
Why doesn't Israel just annex the West Bank?
Israel would not want the Arabs living with them for fear that they would lose power or control.
Look at the National Jewish Population Survey in your Reader. 190-194 -- Name two general trends that are evident in these data.
1. Jews are more highly educated than the rest of the U.S. population and make more money.
2. American Jews tend to marry later then Americans generally.
What explanation is offered for the low fertility rate?
Increased education.
Are higher levels of university education correlated with more intermarriage or less?
Slightly less.
What about Jewish day school education versus no Jewish education?
Only a small percentage (7%) of Jews who attended a Jewish day school became intermarried. But many more (43%) who had no Jewish education did.
Look at the Jewish birthrate article on webteach. What is the exception to the general rule about the low birthrate of American Jews?
Orthodox Jews and Hasidic Jews.
What is the overall average fertility rate for American Jewish women versus the fertility rate of Hasidim?
1.86 : 7.9
What should Jewish leaders do in response to low fertility rate, according to Wertheimer?
Jewish leaders must not be so PC rather speak boldly about Judaism’s countercultural ideals and not water them down. One of these ideals being the importance of having children.
Who was Simon Wiesenthal?
He was a Jew that lived through the Holocaust and decided to dedicate the rest of his life to bringing Nazi war criminals to justice.
Tell me a few of Simon Wiesenthal’s experiences in the camps. Also, how many death camps did he see?
He survived a dozen concentration camps. He was rounded up with three dozen other Jews and the executioner began shooting them through the neck. The executioner heard church bells and went off to pray.
He was caught again later, ordered to strip, and was about to be shot but was rescued by a German officer that wanted his services.
Another time he was spared going to the death camps because a German officer wanted him to do architectural drawings.
Why did Simon Wiesenthal count non-Jews as victims of the Holocaust?
Because Jews made up only 1/3 of those who were killed. The others include gypsies, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Spanish Republicans, common criminals and "anti-social elements."
Tell me, why did Rabbi Baruch Mordechai of Bobrisk become a Hassid?
He respected how the young scholars he met clarified complicated areas of the Talmud which drew him into the teachings of Hasidism.
What impressed Rabbi Baruch Mordechai so much?
He was later interviewed and allowed to speak with a Rebbe. The Rebbe answered a tough question he had with such clarity that he looked up to the Rebbe’s wisdom.
Aside: He later asked a Gaon the same question. When the Gaon did not have the answer, he gave the Gaon the wisdom he had learned. The Gaon was moved at the answer and said that the wisdom could only come from a Gaon and by prophetic inspiration.