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106 Cards in this Set

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Afikoman
Greek word meaning dessert; matzah hidden & found during Passover seder; later eaten (device to keep kids' attention)
Aliyah
literally to "go up;" honor of being called to the Torah to recite a blessing
B.C.E.
Before the Common Era
Bar/Bat Mitzvah
at puberty, a boy (bar) or girl (bat) becomes responsible for keeping religious duties.
B'rit
the Hebrew word for covenant
Berit (B'rit) Milah
ritual of circumcision, marking the covenant between God and the Jewish people
C.E.
Common Era
Challah
braided loaf of bread, ritually baked and eaten on Shabbat and holidays
Chametz
leavened products; removed from home in preparation for Passover
Chanukah
dedication; refers to 8 day holiday celebrating victory of Maccabees & their rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem to God
Chazzan
The cantor or prayer leader of the synagogue or services
Charoset
mixture of apples, wine, and nuts; one of the ritual foods eaten during Passover seder symbolizing the mortar used in making bricks
Cheder
Jewish elementary school
Chevra Kaddisha
Jewish burial society; help clean & prepare the body for burial
Chuppah
bridal canopy
Conserative Judaism
modern Jewish religious movement, originating in U.S. in late 19th c. that emphasizes both tradition and change
Conversos
Spanish & Portuguese Jews who converted to Catholicism during the Middle Ages (many of them secretly remained Jewish)
Covenant
an agreement, or contract, between God and the Jewish people that binds each party to adhere to certain stipulations/promises
Daaven
the Yiddish term meaning to pray
Diaspora
Jews living outside the land of Israel, as citizens of the nations in which they dwell
Erusin
Betrothal. Originally separate from the wedding ceremony, but is incorporated since Middle Ages
Eruv
symbolic boundary around a neighborhood or town enclosing & transforming it into a private domain, thereby permitting one to carry objects w/in the circumference on Shabbat
Essenes
Jews who lived in communities near the Dead Sea around the time of Jesus
Etrog
citron, used in celebration of Sukkot
Galut
exile; term usedto describe Jewish existence outside the land of Israel
Gemara
commentary on the Mishnah
Get
Jewish bill of divorcement
Haggadah
he narrative of the exodus o the Israelites from Egypt, recited at the Passover seder
Halakhah
the rabbinic legal tradition; traditional Jewish law; rabbinic prescriptions for living a Jewish life
Ha Shem
"the name;" term used by traditionally religious Jews in referring to God (don't say god's name or even term like "King" or "Lord" out of respect for God's holiness)
Hasidism
Jewish religious movement that first arose in Eastern Europe in the 18th c. in reaction to what some perceied to be the elitism of medieval Jewish mysticism; sought to bring Judiasm to the (male) masses, by emphasizing religious feeling; Leaders of Hasidic groups called tzaddikim (holy men; rebbes) who were believed to have a special relationship w/ God
Havdalah
ceremony marking the end of Sabbath (sunset on Saturday night) & the beginning of the ordinary work week
Hebrew
holy language of the Jewish people & native language of the State of Israel today; also name given to Abraham & his descendants up until they settled in the land of Israel
Hellenistic period
300 BCE-300 CE; refers to period in which Jews influenced by fusion of Syrian & Greek culture (Hellenism)
Israel
"one who wrestles w/ God;" homeland of the Jewish people
Israelite
name given to the Jews after they settled in the land of Israel
Jew
term first used in the 6th c. BCE after fall of Southern Kingdom, & tribe of Judah went into exile in Babylonia.
Kabbalah
medieval Jewish mysticism
Kaddish
prayer of sanctification & praise of God recited at certain points in liturgy, including as a memorial prayer for the dead
Kashrut
Jewish dietary laws; kosher = suitable, treif = unsuitable
Kedushah
holiness
Ketubah
Jewish marriage contract; is a document providing support for a woman if her husband divorces her or dies
Kiddush
sanctification prayer proclaiming holiness of Sabbath or holidays; recited over cup of wine
Kiddushin
sanctification; refers to Jewish marriage ceremony; also name of tractate in Mishnah focusing on betrothal
K'vod HaMet
principle of honoring the dead (not desecrating the body; burial w/in 48 hrs after death)
Kohen
Jew of priestly descent; descendant of of house of Aaron
Lashon Hara
speaking evil of someone; gossip
Lubovitch
the largest Hasidic group in the world today. most live in the U.S. & Israel; place special emphasis on outreach to nonobservant Jews & on Jewish education
Lulav
palm branch, willows, and myrtle waved as part of celebration of Sukkot
Maariv
evening liturgical service
Maccabees
the Jewish family that fought against Syrian-Greek rule & in 167 BC restored the Jewish state in Jerusalem
Maror
biter herb; one of the ritual foods eaten at Passover seder
Matzah
unleavened bread eaten at Passover
Mechitzah
the divider set up between men and women in Orthodox synagogue
Mezuzah
ritual object placed on door posts of Jewish homes (contains parchment w/ lines from Deut.)
Midrash
interpretation of a biblical text
Mikveh
ritual bath of running water; one of women's 3 special mitzvot (other 2 are baking challah and lighting Sabbath candles)
Mehorah
candelabra; the special candelabra used on Chanukah is called a Chanukiyah
Minchah
2nd of 3 daily prayer services, recited in later afternoon twilight
Minyan
Quorum of 10 adult Jews necessary for public worship
Mishnah
earliest corpus of Jewish law; forms the basis of the Talmud
Mitzvah
commandment; obligation; can also be understood as a blessing
Modern Orthodoxy
19th c. Jewish religious movement founded in Germany by Samson Hirsch; rejects view that cannot be a traditionally religious Jew & participate in modern world
Mohel
someone qualified to perform ritual circumcisions
Niddah
menstruating woman
Othodox Judaism
term coined by Reform opponents of traditionalism in 19th c. as one of derision, but adopted by various groups of observant Jews, indicates authenticity of their belief that to be a Jew is to strictly adhere to he law of the Torah
Passover
The spring festival commemorating & reenacting the exodus of the Israelites from Eygpt ca. 1200 BCE
Pharisees
separatists; Jewish religious/political party that came into being after the Maccabeean revold in the 2nd c/ BCE; emphasized importance of the Oral Law; became the dominant group and their descendants = rabbis
Piyyutim
prayers used in synagogue liturgy
Purim
joyous celebration of victory of biblical Esther and Mordecai over Haman, who tried to destroy the Jews
Rabbinic Judaism
the Judaism, formed in the 1st 6 c. CE that believed that Moses revealed the Torah 2 ways- written & oral- & that the sages at any given time are those who are masters of that dual Torah and are therefore here to define the holy life of Israel
Rabbi
teacher/interpreter of Jewish law; today is also socio-spiritual head of a Jewish community or congregation
Reconstructionist Judaism
20th c. American Jewish movement founded by rabbi Mordecai Kaplan that views God as a transnatural power or process; rejects belief in Jews as chosen people; sees Judaism as evolving religious civilization
Reform Judaism
19th c. religious movement founded in Germany that attempted to adapt Judaism to perceived spirit of the modern age; places greatest emphasis on teachings of prophets & social justice
Responsa
formal rabbinic responses or answers to legal questions posed to them
Rosh Hashanah
the Jewish New Year; literally, the head of the year
Rosh Hodesh
new moon; 1st day of the month, special holiday for Jewish women
Sadducees
a Jewish group of the 2nd temple Period, the opponents of the Pharisees. Denied validity of the Oral Law & insisted on a highly literal interpretation of Scripture; didn't survive destruction of hte 2nd Temple in 70 CE
seder
order. refers to the Passover ritual meal
Sephardic Jews
Jews whose ancestors came from Spain, Portugal, or European Mediterranean countries
Shabbat
the 7th day, Sabbath; holy day of rest
Shacharit
1st of 3 daily services; morning liturgy
Shavuot
Pentacost; Jewish holiday commemorating the giving of the Torah at Sinai
Shema
cental prayer of Jusaism (from book of Deut.)
Shemoneh esre
18 benedictions; the silent prayer, recited while standing, morning, noon, & night, in traditional Jewish liturgy which consists of 19 paragraphs ending in blessings
Sheva berakhot
7 blessings recited under the marriage canopy in celebration of a wedding
Shofar
ram's horn, sounded on New Year & celebration of New Moon
Shulkhan Arukh
16th c. compendium of Jewish law
Siddur
the term for the Hebrew prayer book, derived from the Hebrew word for "order"
Simchat B'rit Bat
contemporary Jewish ceremony celebrating birth of daughter & her entrance in God's covenant w/ Jewish people
Simchat Torah
rejoicing in the Torah; festival in which yearly cycle of Torah reading ends & begins; dance w/ Torah
Sukkah
booth erected in celebration of fall week-long festival of Sukkot
Synagogue
Jewish house of assembly, study, and prayer
Talmud
Mishnah & Gemara; 2 Talmuds: 1st completed in 400 CE (Jerusalem), 2nd completed in 500 CE (Babylonia)
Tanach
the Hebrew Bible; T = toarh, N = Prophets, K = Ketuvim
Tashlich
ritual on afternoon of 1st day of Rosh Hashanah; symbolically cast your sins into water
Teshuvah
to return to God; repentance
Tikkum Olam
repair of the world; working w/ God to make the world a better place where we all can live
Torah
God's revelation to Moses at Sinai; 1st 5 books of Hebrew Bible
Torah Im Derekh Eretz
a phrase in Mishnah to refer to goodness of studying Torah & earning a living; taken by Samson Hirsch to mean that it is good to study & live a life of Torah while also participating in the modern world
Torah I'ishmah
studying Torah for its own sake
Tzedakah
approximates concept of charity, more than giving money, relate to concept of justice or making the world right; obligation of all Jews
Tzelem Elohim
image of God. All juman beings are created in God's image
Yeshiva
academy of higher Jewish learning
Yom Kippur
Day of Atonement; 10 days after Rosh Hashanah; holiest day of the Jewish year
Zionism
modern Jewish nationalism; movement founded at the end of the 19th c. by Theodor Herzl to create Jewish state in the land of Israel