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45 Cards in this Set

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What are the characteristics of Be Bop?
Reharmonization, Recomposition, Unison Lines (heads), extreme tempos, irregular phrase lengths, running 8th, 16th notes, jazz as art music, jam sessions, intellectual approach

Self expression - not entertainment

Voice of freedom
Explain Thelonius Monk's contribution to Be Bop.
Composition. - piano - unique harmony/melody -- "Four in One" -- "Misterioso"


architect of be bop
Explain Dizzy Gillespie's contribution to Be Bop.
Trumpet - rhythm - Afro-cuban music w/Chano Pazo (Latin Jazz)

architect of be bop

international jazz icon

"Bloomdido," "I Can't Get Started", "Groovin' High," "Things to Come," "Manteca," A Night in Tunisia"
Explain Charlie Parker's contribution to Be Bop.
tenor sax - defined be bop (recomposition) -- architect of be bop

"Bloomdido," "Groovin' High," "Koko," "A Night in Tunisia," "Parker's Mood"
Dexter Gordon
tenor sax -- linear (horizontal approach)

dark tone (influenced Coltrane)

"Sid's Delight"
Bud Powell
piano - Monk's protege - viruosity - "Audrey"
J.J. Johnson
trombone -- first to improvise w/trombone
Ray Brown Trio
Brown: bass (fastest) -- influenced James Jamerson, also an influence in classical music

Kenny Clarke/Art Blakey: drums (Pittsburgh)

amazing rhythm

Clarke - top cymbal accents, "dropping bombs"

"The Real Blues"
Art Blakey
drums -- "One by One"

developed many now-standard techniques such as a shuffle beat
Oscar Pettiford
bassist -- bridge between swing and be bop bass - very melodic

"Stardust"
Lambert Hendricks and Ross --- Mel Torme
jazz vocalese -"Everybody's Boppin"


virtuosic technique -- "Lullabye of Birdland"
Describe the characteristics of "Cool Jazz"
*recalls rhythmic style of Lester Young, expands harmonic sophistication of bop (polyphony of Bach), less angular approach, "ensemble approach", more subtle rhythms, pauses in phrases
Miles Davis
trumpet, - "Birth of the Cool"

expressive playing

-- Nonet w/Gil Evans, Gerry Mulligan and John Lewis (chamber technique) -- "New Rhumba" The Duke"

orchestral: "Geru"


Quintet: "If I were a bell," "Well You Needn't," "Round Midnight"

Sextet: "So What," "Blue in Green," "Flamenco Sketches"
George Russell
Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Gravity

basis for "free jazz"

taught Davis and Coltrane theory of tonality
Lenny Tristano
pianist -- beginnings of free jazz

classical influence - studied Bach

(crosscurrent)

free approach, improve linearly w/no pre-conceived theme
West Coast Cool
Gerry Mulligan, Chet Baker
Gerry Mulligan
bari. sax. -- arranger for Birth of Cool
"Freeway" -- cool

contrapuntal playing -- lack of piano - counter line of "guide tones"

"Geru," "Freeway"
Chet Baker
trumpet -- lyrical playing - cool - dark secrets

"Freeway"
Stan Getz
tenor sax - virtuosic - explored Brazilian and Latin jazz - samba styles

"Corcovado," "Desafinado"
John Lewis
piano - Modern Jazz Quartet

Third Stream Music - european approach to composition

Milt Jackson on vibraphone

"Django"
Dave Brubeck
piano-composer-bandleader

comp. nothing like be bop

unique time signatures

(featured altoist - Paul Desmond)

"Take 5" "Blue Rondo ala Turk"
Explain the characteristics of Hard Bop
response to Cool

developed drum styles - "ride cymbal" accent on "sock cymbal" on 2 and 4

cross rhythms and polyrhythms!

extreme tempos - refined
Art Blakey
drums (Jazz Messengers) -- "One by One"

polyrhythm == African elements - call and response

Jazz as American Music
Clifford Brown
trumpet - hard bop

"Joy Spring"
"Cherokee"
Horace Silver
piano - composer

brought in African-American gospel church music, rhythms of West Indies -- funky, soul jazz

"Doodlin"
Miles Davis Quintet
hard bop period

John Coltrane (tenor), Red Garland (piano), Paul Chambers (bass), Philly Joe Jones (drums)

"Well You Needn't," "If I Were a Bell" "Round Midnight"
Modal Jazz
improv strictly from scales and not chords

freedom from harmonic restrictions - further development of rhythm

Miles Davis - "Milestones" "Kind of Blue" w/ Cannonball Adderly (alto sax), Jimmy Cobb (drums), Bill Evans (piano)

"SO WHAT" - Dorian
"FLAMENCO SKETCHES" - modal - 5 scales

OTHER MILES: (not modal)
"BLUE IN GREEN" - french impressionism, meter changes
"ALL BLUES" - 6/8 meter - scalar improv
Sonny Rollins
tenor sax - "thematic improv"

"Blue Seven"
"St. Thomas" - rhythm of West Indies

played w/Davis, Roach, Brown
Bossa Nova - Brazilian Jazz
played in 2, lilting rhythms (often w/guitar not playing downbeats)

harmonic pattern of cool jazz

Bossa - Charlie Byrd (guitar)
Samba - Getz (tenor sax)

Joao Gilberto (guitar)

"Corcovado" "Desafinado"
Latin and Afro-Cuban Jazz
CLAVE: 3/2, or 2/3 rhythm

Jelly Roll Morton
Dizzy and Chano - "Manteca"

Cachao - "Descarga Cubana" "Montuno"
John Coltrane
tenor sax

hard bop (sheets of sound): "Giant Steps" "They Say it's Wonderful"

classic quartet/modal: "Impressions," "Acknowledgement"

avant garde: "Tranesonic"
Free/Avante Garde
populists/innovators - taking the music back

reaction to previous mainstreaming of jazz

no thematic style - expanding limits of improv and harmony
Bill Evans
piano trio

Scott LaFaro (bass), Paul Motian (drums)

rhythm section

"Waltz for Debbie"
Ornette Coleman
alto sax - composer (free jazz)

third stream -- avante garde

free style - "Harmolodics" -- philosophical and musical

"Lonely Woman," "Congeniality"

Pulitzer Prize for Music
The Bad Plus
contemporary jazz trio -- applied Ornette Coleman's theory of harmolodics

"Street Woman"
Cecil Taylor
avante garde

pianist

uses improv - often writen out after recording

"Enter Evening"
Eric Doplhy
alto sax

"out" playing - playing outside the changes w/a freer rhythmic approach

solos on "Mendacity" and "Round Midnight"

pushed boundaries of expression - wide interval leaps, unusual phrasing, glissandi smears, untempered intonation
Miles Davis - Second Quintet
Wayne Shorter (tenor sax), Herbie Hancock (piano), Ron Carter (bass), Tony Williams (drums)

applied new free jazz to Miles' work

"Stella," "7 Steps to Heaven" -- free bop
Jazz Fusion
negative reaction to free and avante garde jazz - influence of popular rock and funk music

electric instruments - synth

Davis' second quintet - "In a Silent Way," "Bitches Brew" "Jack Johnson"
Weather Report
Wayne Shoter (tenor), Joe Zawinal (electric piano)
Jaco Pastorious (electric bass)

"Surucucu" -- rock, funk approach
"Birdland" - mass appeal
"Badia/BoogieWoogie Waltz"

Pastorious:
"Portrait of Tracy," "Chromatic Fantasy," "Blackbird," "Word of Mouth," "Opus Pocus"
Herbie Hancock
pianist - funk

16th notes

"Watermelon Man"
"Chameleon" - synth

crossover artist
Chick Correa
pianist/composer

"Spain"

fusion - rock/latin/jazz - playing as fast as possible
Wynton Marsalis
trumpeter/composer

neo-classical trend

classical and jazz - equal virtuosity

"Chambers of Tain"
Pat Methany
guitar (synth)

sonic approach - jazz and mod.

"Video Games" - fusion -- guitar synth - linear continuity
Medeski, Martin and Wood
jam band - jazz

capitalizing off of Deadheads

"Philly Cheese Blunt" - jamming