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69 Cards in this Set

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What instrument does Ornette Coleman play?
Alto Saxophone
What instrument does Sonny Rollins play?
Tenor Saxophone
What instrument does Cecil Taylor play?
Piano
What are the differences between hard bop and bebop?
Hard bop is funky, was influenced by gospel/blues, hard heavy swinging, simpler than bebop
Why is free jazz called free?
Because there are no set chord progressions.
What is considered the "Graduate School" of Hard Bop?
Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers
Who are some notable musicians from the hard bop era?
Art Blakey, Clifford Brown, Sonny Rollins
Know some influences of Cool Jazz musicians
Influenced by Lester young
How did the Tristano school train jazz musicians?
He had his students learn classical music and improvise using it.
Who is Clifford Brown?
Clean trumpet player. Proved that you don't have to be high to a top level jazz musician.
What is the Birth of the Cool?
album by Miles Davis
Know some notable cool jazz musicians
Miles Davis, Stan Getz, Zoot Sims
Who is Stan Kenton and what is his significance to Jazz?
Father of Jazz Education. He started Jazz in schools.
What styles and pieces did Duke Ellington write?
ballads, concertos, sacred music, exotic music, orchestral music,
What are the differences between Lester Young’s playing style and that of Coleman Hawkins?
Coleman (faster vibrato, harsh tone, vertical) Young (slower vibrato, lighter tone, more horizontal)
list the differences between Bebop and Swing Big Band Era Musical Styles
Bebop:complicated, more unpredictable, faster. Swing is smoother and has more vocals. Swing: less agitated, functional, more vocals
Why was Bebop less popular as a musical style than the swing era?
It featured less vocals and lyrics. Which made it less attainable. It was more complex and therefore harder to follow and dance too. Requires more active listening.
When and who was the first bebop recording?
Coleman Hawkins, "Woody-N-You" 1942-1944
How many degrees in music does Coleman Hawkins have? And tell more about him.
2 degrees and He does not herald from the New Orleans traditions. He is a champion of new and modern jazz.
What other forms of music were Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie interested in?
Classical and Serialism and impressionism
Where do drummers keep “Time”
Ride Cymbal
What is the role of the drummer in Bebop?
"prod" soloists, drop bombs, be integrated in the music.
What is a contrafact?
bebop line over a set of pop chords, tunes, or changes
Where is the new “Proving ground” for jazz musicians wanting to reach the pinnacle of jazz artistry?
New York
Kenny Clarke plays?
Drums
Charlie Parker plays?
Saxophone
Dizzy Gillespie plays?
trumpet
Bud Powell plays?
piano
Max Roach plays?
drums
What are some differences between early Jazz and big band?
Big band: arranged, guitar, less complex, large in size, used people who could just read music (less talented), written down, accessible

Early Jazz: More Improv, banjo, more complex, small in size, more talented, usually not written down off top of head, not very accessible
What is an uncommon instrument in Dixieland combos and more common in swing big band?
Saxophone
What are the most common elements of Jazz?
Improvisation and swing feeling
What did swing bands play for?
dancing
What instrument did Louis Armstrong play?
trumpet/cornet
What instrument did Jelly Roll play?
piano
What instrument did Roy Eldridge play?
trumpet
Explain the Blues.
Black folk music that began in early 1800s, Emotion and pain, Form: structure in music, organized, Style, Harmony (a certain set of chords is assumed), Story Telling: Oral tradition (African)
Was Blues complicated?
No
What is the vocal approach to the Blues?
originated as an unaccompanied vocal style, Eventually a standard rhyme scheme and a progression of accompaniment chords was adopted later
What is New Orleans Jazz style known as?
ensemble style
What band did Bix Beiderbecke play in?
Paul Whiteman band.
The all American Rhythm section is part of what band?
Count Basie's Band
Who is James Reese Europe?
Music director, 18 piece, all black touring band-sparks the society dance craze and eventually the big band era.
Vernon and Irine Castle did what?
Start the dance craze
Name the innovations of Louis Armstrong
introduced Scat singing, had strong out chorus, changed the way tunes were played, changed time feel, changed the way the trumpet was played, influential soloist/improviser
What are instrumentation/sections of a Big band?
Rhythm section, reed section, trumpet, trombone.
Explain how Jazz evolved.
Jazz began from African roots where it developed from aural traditions. When slavery began in North America, this began to the rise of Blues. People began to express their sorrow and emotions through music. Early Jazz at this time was heavily improvised. This was pioneered by Louis Armstrong. At this time the culture of Jazz began to change. Head cutting became more evident and allowed the first sense of competition to come into play. Jazz became more popular with the invention of recording music. This allowed the music to become more accessible and spread across the nation into Chicago then NYC.
Who was the band leader and mentor for Louis Armstrong?
King Joe Oliver
When and by whom was the first jazz recording?
1917 The Original Dixieland Jazz Band
What is the role of the clarinet in early Jazz? Cornet/trumpet? Trombone?
Clarinet: Obligato (fast colorations of the melodies) replaces the piccalo Cornet/trumpet: to lead the ensemble by normally playing the melody Trombone: fills out lower harmonies
What does the term “Professor” refer to in the history of early Jazz?
A pianist in a whore house
After New Orleans what is the next important center of Jazz?
Chicago
Who is James P. Johnson? Nickname?
Father of Stride piano
Who pioneered the use of the plunger mute?
Joe Oliver
Earl Hines' piano style is known as?
Brassy
What and by whom was the first scat solo?
Heebie Jeebies by Louis Armstrong
Who is the first great jazz soloist attributed to learning jazz by transcribing?
Bix Beiderbecke
What are the sections of a big band? What is the biggest section in a big band?
Reed Section, trumpets, trombones rhythm section; reed
Why is there a section of saxophones instead of clarinets?
Because they are louder
What instrument the guitar replaced?
Banjo
What are the instruments from the big band rhythm section?
Guitar piano bass drums
What were some of Fletcher Henderson's innovations?
1) spread popularity of good jazz. 2) broke music publisher's domination over arrangements
3) developed great musicians and their reputations
4) his style was the foundation for big band jazz
List 4 influences from African music that may be traced to elements in Jazz
pitch manipulation, polyrhythmic, collaberation, aural traditions
List two things that the term "blues" refers to
form/structure, emotion
List two African American musical forms derived from musical traditions that led to the formation of jazz and blues
circle dance, and field hollar
Explain improvisation and swing feeling
a
How were Jazz musicians during the Harlem Renaissance treated?
Much of white America embraced the jazz music they heard on their radios. But while crowds of white Americans danced to and applauded the genius of Duke Ellington (at right), Count Basie, and other great black jazz bands of the era, the stars of the Jazz Era were still subjected to harsh discrimination and prejudice. It is shocking to realize that these fine musicians––who defined the elegant, classy style of their day––were not allowed to stay in the hotels, could not eat in the dining rooms, nor even enter the front door of these establishments where they packed the house every night. This is the stunning reality of Jim Crow segregation. In spite of being the Toast of the country, these artists were considered second class citizens though they were highly respected, and celebrated.
How did the media treat certain eras of Jazz?
a
What are the territory bands? Name 1 or 2 of them.
Walter Page's Blue Devils (Oklahoma)