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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The first kidney structure, the pronephros, appears in which embryonic region?
The urogenital system derives from the:
Urogenital ridge
Metanephric mesoderm
Loop of Henle:
Metanephric mesoderm
Collecting tubule:
Metanephric diverticulum (ureteric bud)
Proximal convulated tubule:
Metanephric mesoderm
Distal convoluted tubule:
Metanephric mesoderm
The ascent of the kidney from the lower to middle thorax is caused by:
Caudal growth of the embryo
Which structure becomes first the urachus and then the median umbilical ligament?
The urogenital sinus gives rise to the:
Urinary bladder and most of the urethra
The connective tissue and smooth muscle of the urethra are derived from:
Splanchnic mesoderm
What organ is 10-20 times larger in the fetus than in the adult (proportionate to body size)?
Adrenal gland
The primoridal germ cells migrate along which structures?
Dorsal yolk sac to hindgut mesentery to gonadal ridge
Earliest expression of SRY transcription factor?
Primary sex cords
Mullerian inhibiting factor:
Sertoli cells of testis
Leydig cells of testis
The change of ductus deferens to ejaculatory duct occurs at the:
Seminal vesicle
The epididymus and ductus (vas) deferens in males:
Mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct)
The ejaculatory duct in males:
Mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct)
The uterus and vagina in females:
Paramesonephric duct (Mullerian duct)
The renal pelvis:
Metanephric diverticulum
The duct of Gartner, epoophoron, and appendix vesiculosa in females:
Mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct)
Metanephric mesoderm
The proximal urethra in males and females:
Urogenital sinus
The hormone dihydrotestosterone has a role in the:
Fusion of the labioscrotal folds
A 2 y.o. child has had three urinary tract infections with an increasing blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Renal ultrasound shows a dilated uereter and deformed kidney on the right side. Diagnosis?
Urinary tract anomaly with multicystic kidney disease
A woman presents with a history of 4 consecutive first trimester spontaneous abortions. She has a normal external appearance and pelvic examination. Diagnosis?
Bicornuate uterus
A woman presents for evaluation of infertility after trying to conceive for three years. The physical examination and external genitalia appear normal. Diagnosis?
Female hermaphroditism
A child presents with weight loss, poor appetite, and lethargy. Blood chemistries show markedly elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Renal ultrasound reveals the presence of both kidneys and normal urinary tracts. The kidneys are enlarged and unusually homogenous in texture. A family history reveals that the parents are first cousins.
Polycystic kidney disease
A female infant develops poor feeding and vomiting on the second day of life. Her initial blood chemistries reveal a low glucose, low sodium, and high potassium. A pelvic ultrasound reveals normal uterus and ovaries, and a more focused examination of the external genitalia shows an enlarged clitoris with fusion of the inferior labia. The most probable diagnosis is:
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Horseshoe kidney:
Fusion of the lower poles of the kidneys
Double ureter:
Duplication of the ureteric bud
Urachal fistula:
Connection from the bladder to umbilical cord (persistent allantois)
Exstrophy of the bladder:
Opening of the anterior body wall and bladder
Ectopic ureter:
Abnormal entry of the ureter into the lower urogenital sinus
Common in Turner syndrome:
Fusion of the lower poles of the kidneys