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16 Cards in this Set

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Reasons for IV use:
1. Prevent Fluid Vol. deficit
Fluid req. vary with age, wt., ht.,% of fat. Most accurate assessement of total fluid losses is daily body wts.
Reasons for IV use:
2. Prevent ketosis
Avg. adult 100g/day of glucose will prevent a shift to metabolism of body fat meet normal energy needs for a few days. 2liters of 5% dex meets that need. 1Liter of dex is only 170 Cal. not for long term use.
Reasons for IV use:
3. Prevent deficiences of vit. and minerals
The body can't store water soluble Vit. B vit. are neccessary for metabolism of glucose.
Reasons for IV use:
4. Expansion of vascular volume (correct hypovolemia)
Solution used must create an osmotic pressure that will keep the fluid in the intravascular compartment. Hypertonic solutions ^ osmotic pressure which expands vascular volume more rapidly. Use of volume expanding such as crystalloid and colloid solutions they should be questioned in the absence of hypovolemic symptoms.
Reasons for IV use:
5. Hydration
Use solutions that produce a shift of fluid out of vessels and into cells. Hypotonic solutions don't contain sufficient particles to exert osmotic pressure. When fluid replacement is the goal, 3cc of fluid are administered for every 1cc of measured loss.
Reasons for IV therapy:
6. Correction of specific losses
Specific replacement therapies may address electrolyte imbalances, bleeding, losses of gastric or intestional fluid and/or inadeq. serum protein levels.
IV to provide a route for rapid delivery of med/nutrients(Total parentral nutrition)
This route if fast and speed shock and be a complication when meds, IV solutions with high solute content, or blood products are administered.
IV complications:
Infiltration
escape of fluid into the SQ tissue. S/S: Swelling, coldness, pallor, pain at site. Intervention: stabilize joint, d/c IV monitor site freq.
IV complications:
Sepsis
Microorganisms invade bloodstream thru site. S/S: Red, tender at site, fever, malaise Intervention: call Dr ASAP,
IV complications:
Phlebitis
Inflammation of vein. S/S: Local, acute tenderness, redness, warmth, slight edema of the vein above the site. Intervention: Apply warm, moist compress to site.
IV complications:
Fluid overload
caused when too large a vol. of fluid infuses into the circulatory system. S/S: engorged neck veins, ^ BP and difficulty breathing. Intervention: Slow rate of infusion, Call DR, Monitor flow rate.
IV complications:
Air Embolus
Air in the circulatory system.
S/S: Respitory distress, ^ Rate, Cyanosis, decreased BP Intervention: pinch of catheter to prevent entry of air. Place on left side in trendelenburg position(lower head raise feet)
Meds via an IV bolus or push.
This involves a single inj. of an concentrated solution directly into an IV line.
Meds via intermittent IV infusion
The drug is mixed with a small amount of the intervenous solution and adminstered over a short period at a prescribed interval.
Meds via secondary IV
Also called piggyback. requires the intermittent or additive solution to be placed higher that the primary solution.
Meds via syringe pump
Is a battery operated and allows medication mixed in a syringe to be connected to the primary line and delivered by mechanical pressure applied to the syringe plunger.