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249 Cards in this Set

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Overhead which, by means of absorption rates is included in costs of specific products or saleable services, in a given period of time. Under or over-absorbed overhead is the difference between overhead cost incurred and overhead cost absorbed: it may be split into its two constituent parts for control purposes.
absorbed overhead
A principle whereby fixed as well as variable costs are allotted to cost units and total overheads are absorbed according to activity level. The term may be applied where production costs only, or costs of all functions are so allotted.
absorption costing
Defined actions, allocated to recovery teams and individuals, within a phase of a plan. These are supported by reference data.
action lists
Warning that an incident has occurred.
The first phase of a business continuity plan in which initial emergency procedures and damage assessments are activated.
alert phase
A cost that can be directly identified with a business unit.
allocated cost
An information system containing key attributes of applications deployed in a company. Application portfolios are used as tools to manage the business value of an application throughout its lifecycle.
application portfolio
A cost that is shared by a number of business units (an indirect cost). This cost must be shared out between these units on an equitable basis.
apportioned cost
Component of a business process. Assets can include people, accommodation, computer systems, networks, paper records, fax machines, etc.
In a communications sense, the ability to transmit each character as a self-contained unit of information, without additional timing information. This method of transmitting data is sometimes called start/stop. Synchronous working involves the use of timing information to allow transmission of data, which is normally done in blocks. Synchronous transmission is usually more efficient than the asynchronous method.
Ability of a component or service to perform its required function at a stated instant or over a stated period of time. It is usually expressed as the availability ratio, i.e. the proportion of time that the service is actually available for use by the Customers within the agreed service hours.
An aid to organizational performance management. It helps to focus, not only on the financial targets but also on the internal processes, Customers and learning and growth issues.
balanced scorecard
A snapshot or a position which is recorded. Although the position may be updated later, the baseline remains unchanged and available as a reference of the original state and as a comparison against the current position (PRINCE2).
The security level adopted by the IT organization for its own security and from the point of view of good 'due diligence'.
baseline security
Process by which the quality and cost effectiveness of a service is assessed, usually in advance of a change to the service. Baselining usually includes comparison of the service before and after the change or analysis of trend information. The term benchmarking is usually used if the comparison is made against other enterprises.
Equipment and techniques used to match circuits to each other ensuring minimum transmission impairment.
The British Standard for Information Security Management. This standard provides a comprehensive set of controls comprising best practices in information security.
Budgeting is the process of predicting and controlling the spending of money within the organization and consists of a periodic negotiation cycle to set budgets (usually annual) and the day-to-day monitoring of current budgets.
The final stage in producing a usable configuration. The process involves taking one of more input Configuration Items and processing them (building them) to create one or more output Configuration Items e.g. software compile and load.
A business unit within an organization, e.g. a department, division, branch.
business function
A group of business activities undertaken by an organization in pursuit of a common goal. Typical business processes include receiving orders, marketing services, selling products, delivering services, distributing products, invoicing for services, accounting for money received. A business process usually depends upon several business functions for support, e.g. IT, personnel, accommodation. A business process rarely operates in isolation, i.e. other business processes will depend on it and it will depend on other processes.
business process
The desired time within which business processes should be recovered, and the minimum staff, assets and services required within this time.
business recovery objective
A template business recovery plan (or set of plans) produced to allow the structure and proposed contents to be agreed before the detailed business recovery plan is produced.
business recovery plan framework
Documents describing the roles, responsibilities and actions necessary to resume business processes following a business disruption.
business recovery plans
A defined group of personnel with a defined role and subordinate range of actions to facilitate recovery of a business function or process.
business recovery team
A segment of the business entity by which both revenues are received and expenditure are caused or controlled, such revenues and expenditure being used to evaluate segmental performance.
business unit
Typically those costs applying to the physical (substantial) assets of the organization. Traditionally this was the accommodation and machinery necessary to produce the enterprise’s product. Capital Costs are the purchase or major enhancement of fixed assets, for example computer equipment (building and plant) and are often also referred to as ‘one-off’ costs.
capital costs
The process of evaluating proposed investment in specific fixed assets and the benefits to be obtained from their acquisition. The techniques used in the evaluation can be summarized as non-discounting methods (i.e. simple pay-back), return on capital employed and discounted cash flow methods (i.e. yield, net present value and discounted pay-back).
Capital investment appraisal
The process of identifying major expenditure as Capital, whether there is a substantial asset or not, to reduce the impact on the current financial year of such expenditure. The most common item for this to be applied to is software, whether developed in-house or purchased.
Classification of a group of Configuration Items, change documents or Problems.
The addition, modification or removal of approved, supported or baselined hardware, network, software, application, environment, system, desktop build or associated documentation.
A group of people who can give expert advice to Change Management on the implementation of Changes. This Board is likely to be made up of representatives from all areas within IT and representatives from business units
Change Advisory Board (CAB)
A group that is given the authority to approve change, e.g. by a project board. Sometimes referred to as the Configuration Board.
Change Authority
The procedure to ensure that all changes are controlled, including the submission, analysis, decision making, approval, implementation and post implementation of the change.
Change Control
Request For Change (RFC), Change Control form, change order, change record.
change document
Auditable information that records, for example, what was done, when it was done, by whom and why.
Change history
A log of Requests For Change raised during a project, showing information on each change, its evaluation, what decisions have been made and its current status, e.g. Raised, Reviewed, Approved, Implemented, or Closed.
Change log
Process of controlling changes to the infrastructure or any aspect of services, in a controlled manner, enabling approved changes with minimum disruption.
Change Management
A record containing details of which CIs are affected by an authorized change (planned or implemented), and how.
Change record
The process of establishing charges in respect of business units, and raising the relevant invoices for recovery from Customers.
Process of formally identifying changes by type e.g. project scope change request, validation change request, infrastructure change request."
When the Customer is satisfied that an incident has been resolved.
See gradual recovery.
Cold stand-by
The processes by which an organization retains overall co-ordination of its recovery effort during invocation of business recovery plans.
command, control and communications
A software tool for programmers. It provides help in the planning, analysis, design and documentation of computer software.
Computer-Aided Systems Engineering (CASE)
Configuration of a product or system established at a specific point in time, which captures both the structure and details of that product or system, and enables that product or system to be rebuilt at a later date. A snapshot or a position which is recorded. Although the position may be updated later, the baseline remains unchanged and available as a reference of the original state and as a comparison against the current position (PRINCE2).
configuration baseline
Activities comprising the control of changes to Configuration Items after formally establishing its configuration documents. It includes the evaluation, coordination, approval or rejection of changes. The implementation of changes includes changes, deviations and waivers that impact on the configuration.
configuration control
Documents that define requirements, system design, build, production, and verification for a Configuration Item.
configuration documentation
Activities that determine the product structure, the selection of Configuration Items, and the documentation of the Configuration Item's physical and functional characteristics, including interfaces and subsequent changes. It includes the allocation of identification characters or numbers to the Configuration Items and their documents. It also includes the unique numbering of configuration control forms associated with changes and problems.
configuration identification
Component of an infrastructure - or an item, such as a Request For Change, associated with an infrastructure - that is (or is to be) under the control of Configuration Management. CIs may vary widely in complexity, size and type, from an entire system (including all hardware, software and documentation) to a single module or a minor hardware component.
Configuration Item (CI)
The process of identifying and defining Configuration Items in a system, recording and reporting the status of Configuration Items and Requests For Change, and verifying the completeness and correctness of Configuration Items.
Configuration Management
A database that contains all relevant details of each CI and details of the important relationships between CIs.
Configuration Management Database (CMDB)
Document setting out the organization and procedures for the Configuration Management of a specific product, project, system, support group or service.
Configuration Management plan
A software product providing automatic support for change, configuration or version control.
Configuration Management Tool (CM Tool)
A hierarchy of all the CIs that comprise a configuration.
configuration structure
Planning to address unwanted occurrences that may happen at a later time. Traditionally, the term has been used to refer to planning for the recovery of IT systems rather than entire business processes.
Contingency Planning
An ongoing formal program undertaken within an organization to identify and introduce measurable improvements within a specified work area or work process.
Continuous Service Improvement Program
The amount of expenditure (actual or notional) incurred on, or attributable to, a specific activity or business unit.
Ensuring that there is a proper balance between the Quality of Service on the one side and expenditure on the other. Any investment that increases the costs of providing IT services should always result in enhancement to service quality or quantity.
All the procedures, tasks and deliverables that are needed to fulfill an organization's costing and charging requirements.
cost management
A technique used to evaluate and measure the cost of failed actions and activities. It can be measured as a total within a period or an average per failure. An example would be 'the cost of failed changes per month' or 'the average cost of a failed change'.
cost of failure
In the context of CSBC the cost unit is a functional cost unit which establishes standard cost per workload element of activity, based on calculated activity ratios converted to cost ratios.
cost unit
The process of identifying the costs of the business and of breaking them down and relating them to the various activities of the organization.
A check or restraint on the service designed to enhance security by reducing the risk of an attack (by reducing either the threat or the vulnerability), reducing the impact of an attach, detecting the occurrence of an attack and/or assisting in the recovery from an attack.
The processes by which an organization manages the wider impact of a disaster, such as adverse media coverage.
crisis management
A measure of success or maturity of a project or process. It can be a state, a deliverable or a milestone. An example of a CSF would be 'the production of an overall technology strategy'.
Critical Success Factor (CSF)
Recipient of a service; usually the Customer management has responsibility for the cost of the service, either directly through charging or indirectly in terms of demonstrable business need.
The length of time taken for a block or sector of data to be read from or written to an I/O device, such as a disk or tape.
data transfer time
The library in which the definitive authorized versions of all software CIs are stored and protected. It is a physical library or storage repository where master copies of software versions are placed. This one logical storage area may in reality consist of one or more physical software libraries or file stores. They should be separate from development and test file store areas. The DSL may also include a physical store to hold master copies of bought-in software, e.g. a fireproof safe. Only authorized software should be accepted into the DSL, strictly controlled by Change and Release Management. The DSL exists not directly because of the needs of the Configuration Management process, but as a common base for the Release Management and Configuration Management processes.
Definitive Software Library (DSL)
A delta, or partial, Release is one that includes only those CIs within the Release unit that have actually changed or are new since the last full or delta Release. For example, if the Release unit is the program, a Delta Release contains only those modules that have changed, or are new, since the last Full Release of the program or the last delta Release of certain modules.
delta Release
The reliance, either direct or indirect, of one process or activity upon another.
The loss in value of an asset due to its use and/or the passage of time. The annual depreciation charge in accounts represents the amount of capital assets used up in the accounting period. It is charged in the cost accounts to ensure that the cost of capital equipment is reflected in the unit costs of the services provided using the equipment. There are various methods of calculating depreciation for the period, but the Treasury usually recommends the use of current cost asset valuation as the basis for the depreciation charge.
Charging business Customers different rates for the same work, typically to dampen demand or to generate revenue for spare capacity. This can also be used to encourage off-peak or night-time running.
differential charging
A cost that is incurred for, and can be traced in full to a product, service, cost center or department. This is an allocated cost. Direct costs are direct materials, direct wages and direct expenses.
direct cost
A series of processes that focus only upon the recovery processes, principally in response to physical disasters, that are contained within BCM.
disaster recovery planning
Net present value (NPV) method, in which the discount rate is chosen and the answer is a sum of money."
discounted cash flow
The offering to business Customers of reduced rates for the use of off-peak resources
Memory that is used to store blocks of data that have been read from the disk devices connected to them. If a subsequent I/O requires a record that is still resident in the cache memory, it will be picked up from there, thus saving another physical I/O.
disk cache controller
Total period that a service or component is not operational, within an agreed service times.
Full duplex line/channel allows simultaneous transmission in both directions. Half duplex line/channel is capable of transmitting in both directions, but only in one direction at a time.
duplex (full and half)
A reflection of the transmitted signal from the receiving end, a visual method of error detection in which the signal from the originating device is looped back to that device so that it can be displayed.
The constituent parts of costs according to the factors upon which expenditure is incurred viz., materials, labor and expenses.
elements of cost
See User.
End User
A collection of hardware, software, network communications and procedures that work together to provide a discrete type of computer service. There may be one or more environments on a physical platform e.g. test, production. An environment has unique features and characteristics that dictate how they are administered in similar, yet diverse, manners.
See Super User.
Expert User
One of the measures, against which a delivered IT service is compared, expressed in terms of the customer's business.
external target
An accounting period covering 12 consecutive months. In the public sector this financial year generally coincides with the fiscal year which runs from 1 April to 31 March.
financial year
Service desk call logging and resolution (on agreed areas, for example MS Word)
first-line support
Commonly used metric, used to define incidents resolved at the first point of contact between a customer and the service provider, without delay or referral, generally by a front line support group such as a help desk or service desk. First time fixes are a sub-set of remote fixes.
first time fix rate
A schedule that contains details of all the Changes approved for implementation and their proposed implementation dates. It should be agreed with the Customers and the business, Service Level Management, the Service Desk and Availability Management. Once agreed, the Service Desk should communicate to the User community at large any planned additional downtime arising from implementing the changes, using the most effective methods available.
Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC)
The total cost of all the resources used in supplying a service i.e. the sum of the direct costs of producing the output, a proportional share of overhead costs and any selling and distribution expenses. Both cash costs and notional (non-cash) costs should be included, including the cost of capital.
full cost
All components of the Release unit that are built, tested, distributed and implemented together.
full Release
Equipment which is used to interface networks so that a terminal on one network can communicate with services or a terminal on another.
Previously called 'cold stand-by', this is applicable to organizations that do not need immediate restoration of business processes and can function for a period of up to 72 hours, or longer, without a re-establishment of full IT facilities. This may include the provision of empty accommodation fully equipped with power, environmental controls and local network cabling infrastructure, telecommunications connections, and available in a disaster situation for an organization to install its own computer equipment.
gradual recovery
Descriptive of a situation where, within an organization, actual funds are transferred from the Customer to the IT organization in payment for the delivery of IT services.
hard charging
The situation in a virtual memory system when the required page of code or data, which a program was using, has been redeployed by the operating system for some other purpose. This means that another piece of memory must be found to accommodate the code or data, and will involve physical reading/writing of pages to the page file.
hard fault
A host computer comprises the central hardware and software resources of a computer complex, e.g. CPU, memory, channels, disk and magnetic tape I/O subsystems plus operating and applications software. The term is used to denote all non-network items.
See immediate recovery.
hot stand-by
The convergence of Information Technology, Telecommunications and Data Networking Technologies into a single technology.
Previously called 'hot standby, provides for the immediate restoration of services following any irrecoverable incident. It is important to distinguish between the previous definition of ‘hot standby’ and ‘immediate recovery’. Hot standby typically referred to availability of services within a short timescale such as 2 or 4 hours whereas immediate recovery implies the instant availability of services.
immediate recovery
Measure of the business criticality of an incident. Often equal to the extent to which an incident leads to distortion of agreed or expected service levels.
impact analysis
Simple code assigned to incidents and problems, reflecting the degree of impact upon the customer’s business processes. It is the major means of assigning priority for dealing with incidents.
impact code
Description of the type of impact on the business that could follow a business disruption. Usually related to a business process and will always refer to a period of time, e.g. customer services will be unable to operate for two days.
impact scenario
Any event that is not part of the standard operation of a service and that causes, or may cause, an interruption to, or a reduction in, the quality of that service.
The process of identifying, recording, classifying and progressing incidents until affected services return to normal operation.
Incident Control
A cost incurred in the course of making a product providing a service or running a cost center or department, but which cannot be traced directly and in full to the product, service or department, because it has been incurred for a number of cost centers or cost units. These costs are apportioned to cost centers/cost units. Indirect costs are also referred to as overheads.
indirect cost
The 'Informed' Customer function ensures that the needs of the business are effectively translated into a business requirements specification, that IT investment is both efficiently and economically directed, and that progress towards effective business solutions is monitored. The 'Informed' Customer should play an active role in the procurement process, e.g. in relation to business case development, and also in ensuring that the services and solutions obtained are used effectively within the organization to achieve maximum business benefits. The term is often used in relation to the outsourcing of IT/IS. Sometimes also called ‘Intelligent Customer’."
Informed Customer
Physical or functional interaction at the boundary between Configuration Items.
Previously called 'warm standby, typically involves the re-establishment of the critical systems and services within a 24 to 72 hour period, and is used by organizations that need to recover IT facilities within a predetermined time to prevent impacts to the business process.
intermediate recovery
One of the measures against which supporting processes for the IT service are compared. Usually expressed in technical terms relating directly to the underpinning service being measured.
internal target
Putting business recovery plans into operation after a business disruption.
invocation (of business recovery plans)
Putting standby arrangements into operation as part of business recovery activities.
invocation (of standby arrangements)
The second phase of a business recovery plan.
invocation and recovery phase
The internationally accepted set of standards concerning quality management systems.
The set of processes that enable the IT organization to account fully for the way money is spent (particularly the ability to identify costs by Customer, by service and by activity).
IT accounting
The part of an organization charged with developing and delivering IT services
IT directorate
The sum of an organization's IT related hardware, software, data telecommunication facilities, procedures and documentation.
IT Infrastructure
A described set of facilities, IT and non-IT, supported by the IT service provider that fulfils one or more needs of the Customer and that is perceived by the Customer as a coherent whole.
IT service
The role of IT Service Provider is performed by any organizational units, whether internal or external, that deliver and support IT services to a Customer.
IT Service Provider
The OGC IT Infrastructure Library - a set of guides on the management and provision of operational IT Services.
The attributes of a business function that drive the behavior and implementation of that business function in order to achieve the strategic business goals of the company.
key business drivers
The measurable quantities against which specific Performance Criteria can be set when drawing up the SLA.
Key Performance Indicator
A measurement of success or maturity of a project or process.
Key Success Indicator
See also Critical Success Factor
Discipline within an organization that ensures that the intellectual capabilities of an organization are shared, maintained and institutionalized.
Knowledge Management
An incident or problem for which the root cause is known and for which a temporary Work-around or a permanent alternative has been identified. If a business case exists, an RFC will be raised, but, in any event, it remains a known error unless it is permanently fixed by a change.
known error
The elapsed time from the moment when a seek was completed on a disk device to the point when the required data is positioned under the read/write heads. It is normally defined by manufacturers as being half the disk rotation time.
A series of states connected by allowable transitions. The life cycle represents an approval process for Configuration Items, Problem Reports and change documents.
A read or write request by a program. That request may, or may not, necessitate a physical I/O. For example, on a read request the required record may already be in a memory buffer and therefore a physical I/O is not necessary.
logical I/O
The cost of providing the service now, based upon the investment already made.
marginal cost
The degree to which BCM activities and processes have become standard business practice within an organization.
maturity level/milestone
Measurable element of a service process or function.
Those costs resulting from the day-to-day running of the IT services section, e.g. staff costs, hardware maintenance and electricity, and relating to repeating payments whose effects can be measured within a short timeframe, usually less than the 12-month financial year.
operational costs
An internal agreement covering the delivery of services which support the IT organization in their delivery of services.
Operational Level Agreement (OLA)
All activities and measures to enable and/or maintain the intended use of the ICT infrastructure.
The value of a benefit sacrificed in favor of an alternative course of action. That is the cost of using resources in a particular operation expressed in terms of foregoing the benefit that could be derived from the best alternative use of those resources.
opportunity cost (or true cost)
The process by which functions performed by the organization are contracted out for operation, on the organization's behalf, by third parties.
The total of indirect materials, wages and expenses.
A device that permits terminals, which do not have an interface suitable for direct connection to a packet switched network, to access such a network. A PAD converts data to/from packets and handles call set-up and addressing.
Package Assembly/Disassembly Device (PAD)
A program interruption that occurs when a page that is marked ‘not in real memory’ is referred to by an active page.
page fault
The I/O necessary to read and write to and from the paging disks: real (not virtual) memory is needed to process data. With insufficient real memory, the operating system writes old pages to disk, and reads new pages from disk, so that the required data and instructions are in real memory.
Alternative title for the BSI publication A Code of Practice for IT Service Management.
The amount of time that a hardware device is busy over a given period of time. For example, if the CPU is busy for 1800 seconds in a one hour period, its utilization is said to be 50%.
percentage utilization
The expected levels of achievement which are set within the SLA against specific Key Performance Indicators.
performance criteria
A communications error reported by a computer system that is not detected by network monitoring equipment. It is often caused by changes to the circuits and network equipment (e.g. re-routing circuits at the physical level on a backbone network) while data communications is in progress.
phantom line error
A read or write request from a program has necessitated a physical read or write operation on an I/O device.
physical I/O
The total cost of direct materials, direct labor and direct expenses. The term prime cost is commonly restricted to direct production costs only and so does not customarily include direct costs of marketing or research and development.
prime cost
The standard UK government method for project management.
Sequence in which an Incident or Problem needs to be resolved, based on impact and urgency.
Unknown underlying cause of one or more Incidents.
Process that minimizes the effect on Customer(s) of defects in services and within the infrastructure, human errors and external events.
Problem Management
A connected series of actions, activities, changes etc. performed by agents with the intent of satisfying a purpose or achieving a goal.
The process of planning and regulating, with the objective of performing a process in an effective and efficient way.
Process Control
A collection of activities and projects that collectively implement a new corporate requirement or function.
The organization concerned with the provision of IT services.
An agreed or contracted level of service between a service Customer and a Service Provider.
quality of service
Queuing time is incurred when the device, which a program wishes to use, is already busy. The program therefore has to wait in a queue to obtain service from that device.
queuing time
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks - a mechanism for providing data resilience for computer systems using mirrored arrays of magnetic disks. Different levels of RAID can be applied to provide for greater resilience.
Information that supports the plans and action lists, such as names and addresses or inventories, which is indexed within the plan.
reference data
A collection of new and/or changed CIs which are tested and introduced into the live environment together.
Incidents or problems resolved without a member of the support staff visiting the physical location of the problems. Note: Fixing incidents or problems remotely minimizes the delay before the service is back to normal and are therefore usually cost effective.
remote fixes
Form, or screen, used to record details of a request for a Change to any CI within an infrastructure or to procedures and items associated with the infrastructure.
Request For Change (RFC)
Action that will resolve an Incident. This may be a work-around.
The amount of machine resource that a given task consumes. This resource is usually expressed in seconds for the CPU or the number of I/Os for a disk or tape device.
resource cost
The total resource costs that are consumed by an individual online transaction, batch job or program. It is usually expressed in terms of CPU seconds, number of I/Os and memory usage.
resource profile
Resource units may be calculated on a standard cost basis to identify the expected (standard) cost for using a particular resource. Because computer resources come in many shapes and forms, units have to be established by logical groupings. Examples are: CPU TIme or I nstructions, disk I/O, print lines, Communication Transmissions
resource unit costs
The IT Services section needs to provide the customers with the required services. The resources are typically computer and related equipment, software, facilities or organizational (people).
The ratio of the cost of implementing a project, product or service and the savings as a result of completing the activity in terms of either internal savings, increased external revenue or a combination of the two. For instance, in simplistic terms if the internal cost of ICT cabling of office moves is £100,000 per annum and a structured cabling system can be installed for £300,000, then an ROI will be achieved after approximately three years.
Return On Investment
The phase within a business recovery plan which re-establishes normal operations.
return to normal phase
A measure of the exposure to which an organization may be subjected. This is a combination of the likelihood of a business disruption occurring and the possible loss that may result from such business disruption.
The identification and assessment of the level (measure) of the risks calculated from the assessed values of assets and the assessed levels of threats to, and vulnerabilities of, those assets.
Risk Analysis
The identification, selection and adoption of countermeasures justified by the identified risks to assets in terms of their potential impact upon services if failure occurs, and the reduction of those risks to an acceptable level.
Risk Management
Measures taken to reduce the likelihood or consequences of a business disruption occurring (as opposed to planning to recover after a disruption).
risk reduction measure
A set of responsibilities, activities and authorizations.
Used on some systems to describe swapping.
roll in roll out (RIRO)
A facility which is employed on most mainframes and some minicomputers. When a seek has been initiated the system can free the path from a disk drive to a controller for use by another disk drive, while it is waiting for the required data to come under the read/write heads (latency). This facility usually improves the overall performance of the I/O subsystem.
Rotational Position Sensing
Where the fault cannot be resolved by first -line support or requires time to be resolved or local attendance.
second-line support
The process of managing a defined level of security on information and services.
Security Management
The Security Manager is the role that is responsible for the Security Management process in the service provider organization. The person is responsible for fulfilling the security demands as specified in the SLA, either directly or through delegation by the Service Level Manager. The Security Officer and the Security Manager work closely together.
Security Manager
The Security Officer is responsible for assessing the business risks and setting the security policy. As such, this role is the counterpart of the Security Manager and resides in the Customer's business organization. The Security Officer and the Security Manager work closely together.
Security Officer
Occurs when the disk read/write heads are not positioned on the required track. It describes the elapsed time taken to move heads to the right track.
Seek time
Separation of the management or execution of certain duties or of areas of responsibility is required in order to prevent and reduce opportunities for unauthorized modification or misuse of data or service.
Segregation of duties
A decision to bear the losses that could result from a disruption to the business as opposed to taking insurance cover on the risk.
One or more IT systems which enable a business process.
The actual service levels delivered by the IT organization to a customer within a defined life-span.
service achievement
Written statement of IT services, default levels and options.
Service Catalogue
Techniques used to gain insight in the interdependency between an IT service and the Configuration Items that make up that service.
Service Dependency Modeling
The single point of contact within the IT organization for Users of IT services.
Service Desk
A formal project undertaken within an organization to identify and introduce measurable improvements within a specified work area or work process.
Service Improvement Program (SIP)
The expression of an aspect of a service in definitive and quantifiable terms.
Service Level
A written agreement between a Service Provider and Customer(s) that documents agreed Service Levels for a service.
Service Level Agreement (SLA)
The process of defining, agreeing, documenting and managing the levels of Customer IT service, that are required and cost justified.
Service Level Management (SLM)
Management of services to meet the Customer’s requirements.
Service Management
Third-party organization supplying services or products to Customers.
Service Provider
The written plan and specification of internal targets designed to guarantee the agreed Service Levels.
Service quality plan
Every incident not being a failure in the IT Infrastructure.
Service request
The deliverables of the IT Services organization as perceived by the Customers; the services do not consist merely of making computer resources available for Customers to use.
Simple code assigned to problems and known errors, indicating the seriousness of their effect on the quality of service. It is the major means of assigning priority for resolution.
severity code
Using a program to simulate computer processing by describing in detail the path of a job or transaction. It can give extremely accurate results. Unfortunately, it demands a great deal of time and effort from the modeler. It is most beneficial in extremely large or time-critical systems where the margin for error is very small.
simulation modeling
The situation in a virtual memory system when the operating system has detected that a page of code or data was due to be reused, i.e. it is on a list of ‘free’ pages, but it is still actually in memory. It is now rescued and put back into service.
soft fault
As 'Configuration Item', excluding hardware and services.
Software Configuration Item (SCI)
Software used to support the application, such as operating system, database management system, development tools, compilers, and application software.
software environment
A controlled collection of SCIs designated to keep those with like status and type together and segregated from unlike, to aid in development, operation and maintenance.
software library
Software work is a generic term devised to represent a common base on which all calculations for workload usage and IT resource capacity are then based. A unit of software work for I/O type equipment equals the number of bytes transferred; and for central processors it is based on the product of power and CPU-time.
software work unit
Memory devices that are made to appear as if they are disk devices. The advantages of such devices are that the service times are much faster than real disks since there is no seek time or latency. The main disadvantage is that they are much more expensive.
solid state devices
Specifies in detail what the Customer wants (external) and what consequences this has for the Service Provider (internal) such as required resources and skills.
spec sheet
Any individual or group who has an interest, or 'stake', in the IT service organization of a CSIP.
A pre-determined calculation of how much costs should be under specified working conditions. It is built up from an assessment of the value of cost elements and correlates technical specifications and the quantification of materials, labor and other costs to the prices and/or wages expected to apply during the period in which the standard cost is intended to be used. Its main purposes are to provide bases for control through variance accounting, for the valuation of work in progress and for fixing selling prices.
standard cost
A technique which uses standards for costs and revenues for the purposes of control through variance analysis.
standard costing
Arrangements to have available assets which have been identified as replacements should primary assets be unavailable following a business disruption. Typically, these include accommodation, IT systems and networks, telecommunications and sometimes people.
Standby arrangements
A defined measurement unit that is used for storage type equipment to measure usage. The unit value equals the number of bytes stored.
storage occupancy
Relation diagram depicting the relation between a business function and its business drivers and the technology with the technology characteristics. The SAOM is a high-level tool that can help IT services organist ions to align their SLAs, OLAs and acceptance criteria for new technology with the business value they deliver.
Strategic Alignment Objectives Model (SAOM)
In some organizations it is common to use 'expert' Users (commonly known as Super or Expert, Users) to deal with first-line support problems and queries. This is typically in specific application areas, or geographical locations, where there is not the requirement for full-time support staff. This valuable resource needs, however, to be carefully coordinated and utilized.
Super User
Surcharging is charging business Users a premium rate for using resources at peak times.
The reaction of the operating system to insufficient real memory: swapping occurs when too many tasks are perceived to be competing for limited resources. It is the physical movement of an entire task (e.g. all real memory pages of an address space may be moved at one time from main storage to auxiliary storage).
An integrated composite that consists of one or more of the processes, hardware, software, facilities and people, that provides a capability to satisfy a stated need or objective.
A set of objectives for individual team members to use to balance conflicting roles and conflicting project and organizational objectives in order to create shared responsibility in teams and between teams.
tension metrics
Software running on an intelligent device, typically a PC or workstation, which allows that device to function as an interactive terminal connected to a host system. Examples of such emulation software includes IBM 3270 BSC or SNA, ICL C03, or Digital VT100.
terminal emulation
A read from, or a write to, an online device such as a VDU or remote printer.
terminal I/O
Where specialists' skills (e.g. development/engineer) or contracted third-party support is required.
third-line support
An enterprise or group, external to the Customer’s enterprise, which provides services and/or products to that Customer’s enterprise.
third-party supplier
A condition in a virtual storage system where an excessive proportion of CPU time is spent moving data between main and auxiliary storage.
An indication of an unwanted incident that could impinge on the system in some way. Threats may be deliberate (e.g. willful damage) or accidental (e.g. operator error).
Calculated including depreciation, maintenance, staff costs, accommodation, and planned renewal.
Total Cost Of Ownership (TCO)
In data structures, a series of connected nodes without cycles. One node is termed the root and is the starting point of all paths, other nodes termed leaves terminate the paths.
tree structures
Any indirect cost that cannot be apportioned to a specific Customer
unabsorbed overhead
A contract with an external supplier covering delivery of services that support the IT organization in their delivery of services.
underpinning contract
Costs distributed over individual component usage. For example, it can be assumed that, if a box of paper with 1000 sheets costs £10, then each sheet costs 1p. Similarly if a CPU costs £lm a year and it is used to process 1,000 jobs that year, each job costs on average £1,000.
unit costs
Measure of the business criticality of an incident or problem based on the impact and on the business needs of the Customer.
The person who uses the services on a day-to-day basis.
A cost center for the provision of support services to other cost centers.
Utility Cost Center (UCC)
A variance is the difference between planned, budgeted or standard cost and actual cost (or revenues). Variance analysis is an analysis of the factors that have caused the difference between the pre-determined standards and the actual results. Variances can be developed specifically related to the operations carried out in addition to those mentioned above.
variance analysis
An identified instance of a Configuration Item within a product breakdown structure or configuration structure for the purpose of tracking and auditing change history. Also used for software Configuration Items to define a specific identification released in development for drafting, review or modification, test or production.
A version number; version date, or version date and time stamp.
version identifier
A system that enhances the size of hard memory by adding an auxiliary storage layer residing on the hard disk.
virtual memory system
An ICL VME term for a page fault.
Virtual Storage Interrupt (VSI)
A weakness of the system and its assets, which could be exploited by threats.
See intermediate recovery
warm standby
The lowest level of detail relevant to the Customer.
Method of avoiding an incident or problem, either from a temporary fix or from a technique that means the Customer is not reliant on a particular aspect of a service that is known to have a problem.
In the context of Capacity Management Modeling, a set of forecasts which detail the estimated resource usage over an agreed planning horizon. Workloads generally represent discrete business applications and can be further sub-divided into types of work (interactive, timesharing, batch).
Optical read only disks, standing for Write Once Read Many.
WORM (Device)
Extensible Markup Language. XML is a set of rules for designing text formats that let you structure your data. XML makes it easy for a computer to generate data, read data, and ensure that the data structure is unambiguous. XML avoids common pitfalls in language design: it is extensible, platform-independent, and it supports internationalization and localization.