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30 Cards in this Set

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1. Individuals with Moderate Mental Retardation:
a. constitute 2-3% of the mentally retarded population
b. can be trained to perform unskilled work under close supervision
c. usually acquire academic skills up to approximately 8th grade level
d. display minimal or no impairment in sensorimotor functioning
1. B
2. People who have work related accidents tend to:
a. feel more dissatisfied with their work than accident-free workers
b. be less likely to have had job promotions than accident-free workers
c. have had more recent life stress than accident-free workers
d. be, on the average, less intelligent than accident-free workers
2. C
3. Experimental studies of the relation between level of motivation and level of performance have shown:
a. the higher the intensity or degree of motivation, the better the level of performance
b. for a given task, there is an optimal level of motivation
c. motivation is important to learning but not to performance.
d. optimal performance is obtained relatively more often by internalizers than externalizers
3. B
4. Items for a machinist proficiency test have been based on a job analysis of machinists in 50 plants, each employing five or more machinists doing comparable work. Such a procedure would contribute directly to the test's:
a. concurrent validity
b. predictive validity
c. empirical validity
d. content validity
4. D
A mother complains that her 14-year old daughter, "lives like a pig. She is so sloppy and dirty." She adds, "The more I yell at her, the worse she gets." In operant conditioning terms, the yelling can best be described as:
a. positive reinforcement
b. punishment
c. negative reinforcement
d. a discriminative stimulus for messy behavior
5. A
6. While the nature and extent of measured intellectaul decline during aging is not well established, a consistent finding is a/an:
a. increase in problem solving ability
b. increase in word fluency
c. decrease in vocabulary
d. increase in response time
6. D
7. Which of the following is the strongest evidence of a patient's addiction to a substance?
a. physiological tolerance and withdrawal
b. a positive urine test for the substance
c. serious occupational impairment
d. denial of any involvement with the substance
7. A
8. A psychologist is appointed by the court to examine a defendant. The psychologist should:
a. begin the evaluation by informing the defendant that anything discussed me be talked about in open court.
b. begin the evaluation by asking the defendant to indicate information that should be kept confidential.
c. refuse to do the evaluation unless the Court agrees that it will be kept confidential.
d. discuss confidentiality only if the defendant asks about it.
8. A
9. If the objectives of psychological research conducted in a laboratory dictate that certain information be withheld from the participant, consent by the participant:
a. may be waived provided written consent is obtained from a member of the participant's immediate family.
b. is not necessary, but some explanation of the research situation to the participant is essential
c. is necessary, and an explanation of significant aspects that might affect willingness to participate must be provided.
d. is considered essential only if there is possible risk of physical or psychological harm.
9. C
10. Which of the following is the most common neuropsychological complication of AIDS?
a. impaired attention and speed of information processing
b. impaired cognitive flexibility
c. dementia
d. impaired visuospatial constructions
10. C
11. From a Jungian standpoint, which of the following phenomena is taking place when contents of either the personal or collective unconscious are projected onto the analyst?
a. transference
b. anima-animus conflict
c. fantasy
d. exchange of symbols
11. A
12. The function of the correction for attentuation is to:
a. provide an estimate of the predictive validity of a test that is independent of chance factors in any specific validation sample.
b. show how adding or subtracting items affects the reliability of a test.
c. estimate the correlation between two variables if one or both could be measured without error.
d. correct an obtained correlation coefficient for restriction of range in either variable
12. C
13. A research study is carried out to investigate the effects of 4 different psychological treatments designed to reduce test anxiety in college students. A significant treatment effect is noted, along with one significant 2nd order interaction effect. A member of the research team suggests that the interactive effect not be reported since it is tangential to the main purpose of the study. This suggestion is:
a. representative of a methodological issue and needs to be evaluated from a scientific perspective.
b. clearly unethical, since it conflicts with the psychologist's responsibility to report completely the results of research projects.
c. possibly unethical, but difficult to define because the specific situation is not noted in the ethics codes
d. an example of poor professional judgment but essentially unrelated to profesional ethics.
13. B
14. Which of the following statements best paraphrases Thorndike's Law of Effect?
a. all behavior is caused; everything that is done has an effect on behavior
b. Elimination of the UCS or the reward results in a decreased frequency of behavior.
c. A positive correlation exists between responding and aversive stimulation
d. A reward tends to increase the probability of recurrence of the response that it follows.
14. D
15. In taking a personality inventory, some examinees can "fake good". What testing technique is probably the best correction for this response bias?
a. increasing the length of the test.
b. increasing the homogeneity of the test
c. employing a right minus wrong correction formula
d. using an empirically derived correction
15. D
16. Children typically take their first steps around the age of:
a. 6 months
b. 9 months
c. 12 months
d. 18 months
16. C
17. Exposing individuals to arguments against their views, arguments that are then strongly refuted, may serve to:
a. increase their attitudnal ambivalence
b. weaken their resistance to later persuasive appeals
c. render them indifferent to the attitude object
d. inoculate them against persuasive appeal
17. D
18. Tonic-clonic seizures most frequently occur in which type of epilepsy?
a. simple partial
b. complex partial
c. grand mal
d. petit mal
18. C
19. Research on women who have had aboritions indicates that:
a. subsequent problems in sexual adjustment and in relationships with men are common
b. most women who have abortions think no more about the event than they would about having a wisdom tooth removed.
c. the psychological consequences are no worse than they are for women who have chosen to continue their pregnancies and give birth
d. the experience frequently has serious psychological consequences, usually in the form of guilt and depression
19. C
20. Studies on persuasion have shown that when the communicator is credible, the degree to which the receiver's initial position will change is:
a unrelated to the sex of the communicator
b. unrelated to the amount of discrepancy between the communicator's position and the receiver's initial position
c. greater when there is a smaller discrepancy between the communicator's position and the receiver's initial position.
d. greater when there sia larger discrepancy between the communicator's position and the receiver's initial position
20. D
21. A 10-year-old boy, tested with a paper-and-pencil intelligence test, obtained an IQ score of 130. Two years later, he was tested with an alternate form of the same test. Most likely, the obtained score on the second testing would be:
a. more than 130
b. less than 130
c. 130
d. 130, but with a different pattern of subtest scores
21. B
22. In a large factory, one group of workers is exposed throughout the day to loud and unpredictable periods of noise, wherea another group of workers is not exposed to such noise. The specific deleterious effects of unpredictable noise could be ameliorated by:
a. giving the workers additional days off to compensate for having to work under adverse conditions
b. allowing the workers to terminate the noise if it becomes intolerable
c. informing the workers about the deleterious effects of the noise and helping them adapt to the situation
d. allowing the workers to file grievances about the noise
22. B
23. With respect to the relationship between achievements and anxiety in school children, it appears that:
a. mildly anxious children are better achievers than more anxious ones
b. non-anxious children are better achievers than mildly anxious ones
c. some anxiety normally facilitates learning, and only for a few learners is there a point beyond which anxiety impedes learning
d. there is no systematic relationship; anxiety measures are of no help in predicting achievement
23. A
24. Although concurrent individual and group therapy may be necessary for some patients, many therapists do not support it. One of the major concerns is that:
a. patients beginning with a group, finding additional sources of support, tend to terminate individual therapy prematurely.
b. patients wait until they are in their individual sessions before reacting to what occurred in in the group.
c. screening procedures for patients may be ignored because a therapist is recommending the group experience
d. patients use their two therapists' words to refute group members' suggestions for behavior change.
24. B
25. When subjected to moderate punishment, an instrumental response of moderate strength will:
a. be eliminated
b. be strengthened
c. be suppressed
d. remain unchanged
25. C
26. All of the following are uses of job analysis except:
a. matching the right person with the right job
b. setting wages and salaries
c. establishing safety standards
d. determining underutilization in workforce labor market comparisons
26. D
27. For all sensory systems except olfaction, the afferent sensory pathways include the:
a. cerebellum
b. thalamus
c. caudate nucleus
d. inferior colliculus
27. B
28. Carol and Jim are experiencing marital difficulties. They have two school aged children, a boy and a girl. According to meta-analysis of research on the relationship between marital discord and child behavior problems, it would be expected that:
a. niether child is more likely to manifest an immediate behavior problem than are children of stable marriages
b. the girl is more likely than the boy to manifest an immediate behavior problem
c. the boy is more likely than the girl to manifest an immediate behavior problem
d. both children are equally likely to manifest an immediate behavior problem
28. C
29. Group A consists of people whose measured interests are highly similar to interests of engineers. Group B consists of people whose measured interests are highly dissimilar to those of engineers. Which of the following statements would be justified, given that both Group A and Group B entered engineering?
a. Group A would be more likely to persist in the occupation
b. Group A and B would not differ in success at or satisfaction with the occupation
c. Group A members would be more likely to succeed in the occupation
d. Group B members would achieve levels of success equal to those of Group A, but would do so more slowly.
29. A
30. When using factor analysis, a major concern of personality theorists has been specifying the:
a. number of dimensions necessary to describe personality
b. developmental sequences of personality dimensions
c. differential accuracy between dimensions
d. connections between personality dimensions and actual behavior.
30. A