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48 Cards in this Set

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Michelangelo

Battle of the Lapiths and the Centaurs

c. 1492

Casa Buonarroti, Florence
a/t/d/l
Sistine Chapel

1477-81

Commissioned by Sixtus IV (Francesco della Rovere)
t/d/commissioned by
Luca Signorelli

Testament of Moses

1481-82

Sistine Chapel
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Botticelli

Punishment of Corah

1481-82

Sistine Chapel

The message of this painting provides the key to an understanding of the Sistine Chapel as a whole before Michelangelo's work. The fresco, located in the fifth compartment on the south wall, reproduces three episodes, each of which depicts a rebellion by the Hebrews against God's appointed leaders, Moses and Aaron, along with the ensuing divine punishment of the agitators. On the right-hand side, the revolt of the Jews against Moses is related, the latter portrayed as an old man with a long white beard, clothed in a yellow robe and an olive-green cloak. Irritated by the various trials through which their emigration from Egypt was putting them, the Jews demanded that Moses be dismissed. They wanted a new leader, one who would take them back to Egypt, and they threatened to stone Moses; however, Joshua placed himself protectively between them and their would-be victim, as depicted in Botticelli's painting.

The centre of the fresco shows the rebellion, under the leadership of Korah, of the sons of Aaron and some Levites, who, setting themselves up in defiance of Aaron's authority as high priest, also offered up incense. In the background we see Aaron in a blue robe, swinging his incense censer with an upright posture and filled with solemn dignity, while his rivals stagger and fall to the ground with their censers at God's behest. Their punishment ensues on the left-hand side of the picture, as the rebels are swallowed up by the earth, which is breaking open under them. The two innocent sons of Korah, the ringleader of the rebels, appear floating on a cloud, exempted from the divine punishment.

The principal message of these scenes is made manifest by the inscription in the central field of the triumphal arch: "Let no man take the honour to himself except he that is called by God, as Aaron was." The fresco thus holds a warning that God's punishment will fall upon those who oppose God's appointed leaders. This warning also contained a contemporary political reference through the portrayal of Aaron in the fresco, depicted wearing the triple-ringed tiara of the Pope and thus characterized as the papal predecessor. It was a warning to those questioning the ultimate authority of the Pope over the Church. The papal claims to leadership were God-given, their origin lay in Christ giving Peter the keys to the kingdom of heaven and thereby granting him privacy over the young Church. Perugino painted this crucial element of the doctrine of papal supremacy immediately opposite Botticelli's fresco.
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Perugino

Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter

1481-82

Sistine Chapel
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Cosimo Rosselli

Last Supper

1481-82

Sistine Chapel
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Luca Signorelli

The Damned Cast into Hell

1499-1500

S. Brizio Chapel, Orvieto Cathedral
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Michelangelo

Pieta

1498-99

St. Peter's
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Leonardo da Vinci

Last Supper

c.1494-98

Refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan

commissioned by Ludovico "Il Moro" Sforza
a/t/d/l/**** commissioned by
Leonardo da Vinci

Madonna and Child with St. Ann

c.1505-13

(Louvre)
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Giovanni Bellini

Madonna and Saints

1505

St. Zaccaria, Venice
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Michelangelo

David

1501-04

Commissioned by the Opera del Duomo for the North Tribune of the Cathedral, but on completion installed in front of the Palazzo della Signoria (Accademia)
a/t/d/l/commissioned by
Leonardo da Vinci

Mona Lisa

1503-1515 (?)

(Louvre)
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Raphael

Maddalena Strozzi Doni

c.1506

(Palazzo Pitti, Florence)

The merchant Agnolo Doni married Maddalena Strozzi in 1503, but Raphael's portraits were probably executed in 1506, the period in which the painter studied the art of Leonardo most closely. The composition of the portraits resembles that of the Mona Lisa: the figures are presented in the same way in respect to the picture plane, and their hands, like those of the Mona Lisa, are placed on top of one another. But the low horizon of the landscape background permits a careful assessment of the human figure by providing a uniform light which defines surfaces and volumes. This relationship between landscape and figure presents a clear contrast to the striking settings of Leonardo, which communicate the threatening presence of nature.

But the most notable characteristic that distinguishes these portraits from those of Leonardo is the overall sense of serenity which even the close attention to the materials of clothes and jewels (which draw one's attention to the couple's wealth) is unable to attenuate. Every element - even those of secondary importance - works together to create a precise balance.
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Raphael

Entombment

1507

(Borghese Gallery, Rome)

Among the figurative components which Raphael drew from his Florentine experience, those which derive from Michelangelo seem most prevalent in his last Florentine works. The work in which Michelangelo's importance to Raphael becomes most evident is the Deposition (Entombment). The panel was painted in 1507 in Perugia for Atalanta Baglioni as a votive offering in memory of her son, Grifonetto, killed in a piazza in Perugia in the course of a family feud.

The artist detaches himself both formally and iconographically from traditional representations of the scene. He does not depict the deposition itself, but the carrying of the dead Christ. The protagonists of the scene do not demonstrate their sorrow violently, but are reduced, through the Raphaelesque mode of feeling, to a sort of painful resignation. The vision of space is less geometric than the Florentine vision, and it appears freer and closer to nature. The influence of Michelangelo is strong, however, and can be perceived without doubt in the limp arm of Christ as well as in the female figure at the extreme right. The latter mirrors the figure of the Virgin in the Tondo Doni, which Michelangelo executed between 1504 and 1506. The formal vigour and sense of open space which characterize Michelangelo's painting certainly must have had a profound effect on Raphael.
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Raphael

Madonna of the Baldachino (unfinished)

1508

Santo Spirito (Palazzo Pitti)
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Michelangelo

Sistine Chapel Ceiling

1508-12

Sistine Chapel, Rome
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Donato Bramante

Tempietto

begun 1502

San Pietro in Montorio, Rome

Bramante's Tempietto is in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio, believed to be the site of St Peter's martyrdom. The architect clearly worked from a historical typology: individual architectural elements such as columns, entablature, and vault acknowledge a debt to classical structures. The resulting centralized building represented a new type of Christian architecture.
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Built on the suposed site of.. style an obvious debt to.. plan is..
Raphael

Parnassus

c.1511

Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace

The third composition for the Stanza della Segnatura represents Parnassus, the dwelling place of Apollo and the Muses and the home of poetry, according to classical myth.

Mount Parnassus, the home of Apollo, is, like the hill of the Vatican, a place where in ancient times there was a shrine to Apollo dedicated to the arts. This has a direct bearing on the picture because through the window on the wall where the fresco is painted there is a view of the Cortile del Belvedere and the hill of the Vatican. There were newly discovered classical sculptures in the Cortile, such as the Ariadne that Raphael used as a model for the muse to the left of Apollo.

Apollo plays a lira da braccio (an anachronism which, according to some, was meant to symbolize the perpetual value of the poetic message). He sits under a laurel grove with the nine Muses (who personify the nine types of art). The most eminent classical and contemporary poets are depicted together in a harmonic ascending and descending movement from left to right. Homer is flanked by Virgil and Dante, Ovid and Horace are next to Sappho, while from the "ranks" of moderns we can identify Petrarch, Boccaccio and Ariosto. Petrarch is recognizable in the group in the left foreground; so is Sappho, who holds a scroll bearing her name; Ennius is seated above them, listening to the song of the blind Homer (who appears as a protagonist, like Apollo), behind him stands Dante, who had also appeared in the Disputa as a theologist, evidently because of the doctrinal content of the Divine Comedy. Some see the portrait of Michelangelo in the bearded figure immediately to the right of the central group, although it is more readily identified with Tebaldeo or Castiglione, for the scene is, after all, a celebration of poetry.
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Raphael

School of Athens

1510-11

Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace

Commissioned by Julius II

The School of Athens is a depiction of philosophy. The scene takes place in classical times, as both the architecture and the garments indicate. Figures representing each subject that must be mastered in order to hold a true philosophic debate - astronomy, geometry, arithmetic, and solid geometry - are depicted in concrete form. The arbiters of this rule, the main figures, Plato and Aristotle, are shown in the centre, engaged in such a dialogue.

The School of Athens represents the truth acquired through reason. Raphael does not entrust his illustration to allegorical figures, as was customary in the 14th and 15th centuries. Rather, he groups the solemn figures of thinkers and philosophers together in a large, grandiose architectural framework. This framework is characterized by a high dome, a vault with lacunar ceiling and pilasters. It is probably inspired by late Roman architecture or - as most critics believe - by Bramante's project for the new St Peter's which is itself a symbol of the synthesis of pagan and Christian philosophies.

The painting celebrates classical thought, but it is also dedicated to the liberal arts, symbolized by the statues of Apollo and Minerva. Grammar, Arithmetic and Music are personified by figures located in the foreground, at left. Geometry and Astronomy are personified by the figures in the foreground, at right. Behind them stand characters representing Rhetoric and Dialectic. Some of the ancient philosophers bear the features of Raphael's contemporaries. Bramante is shown as Euclid (in the foreground, at right, leaning over a tablet and holding a compass). Leonardo is, as we said, probably shown as Plato. Francesco Maria Della Rovere appears once again near Bramante, dressed in white. Michelangelo, sitting on the stairs and leaning on a block of marble, is represented as Heraclitus. A close examination of the intonaco shows that Heraclitus was the last figure painted when the fresco was completed, in 1511. The allusion to Michelangelo is probably a gesture of homage to the artist, who had recently unveiled the frescoes of the Sistine Ceiling. Raphael - at the extreme right, with a dark hat - and his friend, Sodoma, are also present (they exemplify the glorification of the fine arts and they are posed on the same level as the liberal arts).
a/t/d/l/commissioned by
Raphael

Disputation of the Holy Sacrament (Disputa')

1510-11

Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace

The fresco can be seen as a portrayal of the Church Militant below, and the Church Triumphant above. A change in content between a study and the final fresco shows that the Disputa and The School of Athens can be seen as having a common theme: the revealed truth of the origin of all things, in other words the Trinity. This cannot be apprehended by intellect alone (philosophy), but is made manifest in the Eucharist.
At the bottom of the picture space, inserted in a vast landscape dominated by the altar and the eucharistic sacrifice, are saints, popes, bishops, priests and the mass of the faithful. They represent the Church which has acted, and which continues to act, in the world, and which contemplates the glory of the Trinity with the eyes of the mind. Following a fifteenth century tradition, Raphael has placed portraits of famous personalities, both living and dead, among the people in the crowd. Bramante leans on the balustrade at left; the young man standing near him has been identified as Francesco Maria Della Rovere; Pope Julius II, who personifies Gregory the Great, is seated near the altar Dante is visible on the right, distinguished by a crown of laurel. The presence of Savonarola seems strange, but may be explained by the fact that Julius II revoked Pope Alexander VI's condemnation of Savonarola (Julius was an adversary of Alexander, who was a Borgia).
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Raphael

Transfiguration

1518-20

commissioned by Giulio de' Medici (later Clement VII) for Narbonne Cathedral, where he was Bishop (Musei Vaticani)
a/t/d/l/commissioned by
Sebastiano del Piombo

The Raising of Lazarus

1517-19

Narbonne Cathedral (National Gallery, London)
a/t/d/l (original and current)
Michelangelo

Doni Tondo

1506

(Uffizi)
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Rosso Fiorentino

Dead Christ

c. 1524-27

(Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)

Rosso executed the painting for Bishop Leonardo Tornabuoni. Christ's naked body has undeniable similarities with works by Michelangelo: the Vatican Pietà and the Risen Christ from the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. What interested Rosso in this case, however, over and beyond the literal translation of Michelangelo's figurative ideas, was to exalt the beauty of the human body, which, following the example of the illustrious model, is accurately portrayed down to the very last detail. The total nakedness of Christ's body, not entirely free of a note of sexuality, forms part of this same tendency.

The handsome young body, languidly and sensually slumped in a serene repose, and literally dominating the pictorial composition, retains little of the traditional iconography of the dead Christ, being closer to the pagan representation of the figure of Adonis. Indeed, the signs of Christ's martyrdom, which dramatically concluded the earthly existence of God's son, are barely hinted at in the painting: the small wound in his side touched by the hand of an angel, the thin crown of thorns surrounding the head of the Redeemer, and the rod with the sponge soaked in vinegar and the nails, depicted along the lower edge of the painting.
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Andrea del Sarto

Madonna of the Harpies

1517

San Francesco, Florence (Uffizi)
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Jacopo Pontormo

Visdomini Altarpiece

1518

San Michele in Visdomini, Florence

This work shows clear references to classical figurative culture, although overall there is a definite break with the effects of harmony and equilibrium. The compositions of both the right part and the left part, although symmetrical and populated by an identical number of figures, are organized very differently. The complex twisting of the bodies and the many different directions of the gestures suggest the use of a grid of extremely complicated and dynamic geometrical schemes. The lines of vision go in all possible directions; in no instance do they cross or match, this emphasizing the psychological isolation of the figures. The facial features and expressions of the older Joseph and St John the Evangelist, as well as the laughing putti, are exaggeratedly pronounced. In short, everything combines to create an atmosphere of restless instability. The effect of suffocating compression produced by the reduction of spatial depth, and by the dense chiaroscuro that attenuates the colours, is counterbalanced by a centrifugal energy generated by the agitation of the figures. This definitely breaks the harmonious unity of the classical compositional structure.
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Jacopo Pontormo

Deposition or Entombment

1525-8

Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicita', Florence
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Michelangelo

New Sacristy (Medici Chapel)

1519-34

San Lorenzo, Florence

commissioned by Leo X and Giulio de'Medici
a/t/d/l/commissioned by
Michelangelo

Laurentine Library

1523-59; stairway designed 1558-59

San Lorenzo, Florence

commissioned by Clement VII
a/t/d/l/commissioned by
Baccio Bandinelli

Hercules and Cacus

1525-34

Piazza della Signoria, Florence

commissioned by the Medici
a/t/d/l/commissioned by
Giorgione

La Tempesta

c. 1509?

Galleria dell'Accademia, Venice
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Giorgione (completed by Titian)

Sleeping Venus

c.1507-1510

Dresden
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Titian

Sacred and Profane Love

1514

(Galleria Borghese, Rome)
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Raphael

Galatea (Gal-at-TAY-a)

1513

Villa Farnesina, Rome

As subject Raphael chose a verse from a poem by the Florentine Angelo Poliziano which had also helped to inspire Botticelli's 'Birth of Venus'. These lines describe how the clumsy giant Polyphemus sings a love song to the fair sea-nymph Galatea and how she rides across the waves in a chariot drawn by two dolphins, laughing at his uncouth song, while the gay company of other sea-gods and nymphs is milling round her.

Raphael's fresco shows Galatea with her gay companions; the giant is depicted in a fresco by Sebastiano del Piombo which stands to the left of Raphael's Galatea.
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Raphael

Madonna della Seggiola

1514

Palazzo Pitti, Florence

The bodies of the Virgin, Christ, and the boy Baptist fill the whole picture. The tender, natural looking embrace of the Mother and Child, and the harmonious grouping of the figures in the round, have made this one of Raphael's most popular Madonnas. The isolated chair leg is reminiscent of papal furniture, which has led to the assumption that Leo X himself commissioned the painting.
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Raphael

Pope Leo X with Giulio de'Medici and Luigi de'Rossi

c. 1518

(Uffizi)
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Giorgione

Enthroned Madonna and Child with St. Liberale and St. Francis

c. 1504?

Duomo, Castelfranco Veneto (birthplace of Giorgione)

The altar-piece was, in all probability, commissioned by the Condottiere Tuzio Costanzo in memory of his son Matteo, who died in 1504: the Costanzo coat of arms can be seen on the base of the Virgin's throne. It can almost certainly be dated to 1505. Although it is not signed, the authorship is made indisputable by Giorgione's individual technique in laying on delicately shaded coats of paint without any underlying scaffolding from a drawing. The traditional scheme of composition is lightened by the novel use of such elements as the throne and the landscape, which takes up a good portion of the background.

This smallish altarpiece echoes the artistic approach developed by Giovanni Bellini, who was probably one of Giorgione's teachers. Giorgione softens both the atmosphere surrounding the figures and that in the space before the viewer. This atmospheric veil has a palpable analogy with the methods of Leonardo da Vinci, who was known to have been in Venice in 1500 and it is possible that Giorgione had seen some works by the Florentine genius. Yet the figural proportions and the lacy landscape speak to a fully personal Giorgionesque idiom.
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Sebastiano del Piombo

San Giovanni Crisostomo Altarpiece

1510-11

San Giovanni Chrisostomo, Venice

The altarpiece has at the centre an old man reading, oblivious of the saints around him. It is a tightly knit and crowded group, the slightly yearning figure of St John the Baptist on the right looking inwards is balanced by a trio of grandly assured, superb Venetian beauties looking forwards and outwards at the spectator. The figures are in an architectural setting.

This altarpiece is the major work of Sebastiano executed in Venice before he removed to Rome permanently in 1511.
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city and artists this style is associated with? Likewise the Raising of Lasarus begun 5 yrs later in...?
Titian

Assumption of the Virgin

1516-18

Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice
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Michelangelo

Tomb of Julius II

1545

St. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome
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Michelangelo

The Last Judgement

1531-41

Sistine Chapel
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Piero di Cosimo

Immaculate Conception with Saints

c. 1505

Uffizi
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Piero di Cosimo

Perseus Frees Andromeda

c. 1510

Uffizi
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Pietro Perugino

Mary Magdalene

c. 1500

Palazzo Pitti
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Perugino

Madonna and Child

1490

The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, Russia
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Perugino

Madonna and Child Enthroned with St. John the Baptist and St. Sebastian

1493

Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy
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Rosso Fiorentino

Descent from the Cross

1521

Cathedral, Volterra
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