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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the most difficult task facing a project manager?
establishing a reasonable budget
What are the four organization types?
Functional (line); pure project; matrix; mixed
What is float?
the difference between the time available for a task and the time necessary to complete it
What is another name for a kill point?
phase gate
What are the two components of project leadership?
visibility and communication
What advantages does a functional organization type have?
team familiarity; established administration; staff availability; scheduling efficiency; clear authority
What is another name for situational management?
contingency theory
What two techniques can be used to improve schedule estimation?
PERT and Monte Carlo analysis
What is the original approved plan sometimes called?
baseline plan
During what process would a prototype or use case modeling be used?
requirements analysis
What two project organization types are most common in small- to mid-sized businesses?
functional and matrix
What is the formula for a PERT estimate?
(best-case + 4*most-likely + worst-case ) / 6
What sort of project is best suited to a pure-project approach?
a complex, high-priority project lasting a year or more
How does a functional project work?
a project is assigned to the department with relevant expertise
How does bottom-up budgeting work?
staff creates budget starting at the task level
What are the two components of scope?
function (what it does); performance (how well it does it)
What is resource leveling?
reassigning scheduled work from a heavily-loaded resource to one with a lighter load
What are the two principal tools used to track the progress of a project?
Gantt chart and earned-value analysis
What are the seven steps in scheduling?
document assumptions; estimate task duration; determine critical path & task float; determine calendar dates & create ideal schedule; adjust resource assignments & incorporate schedule adjustments; chart schedule; final approval & distribution
What project structure is best for a project that uses people solely from the same organization?
How does top-down budgeting work?
senior managers estimate budget and allocate funds to lower-level managers
What are the five stakeholder roles in a project?
project manager; project sponsor; manager; team member; client/customer
What two steps can ease problems of budget control?
establish petty cash fund; get as much signing authority as possible
What project organization type is most common?
What are the four disadvantages of the matrix organization type?
built-in conflicts; resistance to project termination; complex command and authority relationships; complex employee recognition systems
What is usually the first event in the execution phase?
kick-off event
What kind of scheduling chart is most common?
Gantt chart
What disadvantages does a functional organization have?
isolation of project and group; limited resources; bureaucratic procedures; lack of project focus; department orientation
Which two scheduling tasks should be performed with the project team?
estimating task duration; adjusting resource assignment & incorporating schedule adjustments
How does a pure-project organization work?
task force from various departments report solely to PM for duration of project
Which budgeting type is more difficult?
What three values does Earned Value Analysis create?
Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS); Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP); Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)
Which budget method is best to avoid overlooking a task or subtask?
What are the three options when faced with a possible risk?
avoid; accept; mitigate
What are the two established methods for budgeting?
top-down and bottom-up
How many estimates does PERT require?
Three: best-case, worst-case and most likely
What method should be used to develop the project plan if the project is extremely large?
breaking the project in to subprojects
What three types of communication are necessary?
vertical, horizontal and diagonal
What sort of project usually employs a mixed organization approach?
a complex project with widely differing subprojects
What are the three C's of sucessful project organizations?
communication, cooperation and coordination
What are two advantages of creating the project plan yourself?
quicker; can be created before the team is assembled
What is MBWA?
Management By Walking Around
What is contingency theory?
matching leadership style to the needs of a specific situation
What is the mixed organization type?
project that uses a mix of functional, pure-project and matrix approaches
What are the four disadvantages to the pure-project approach?
duplication of effort; unclear loyalties and motivations; intracompany rivalry; uncertain reintegration of resources
What are the three basic orientations of leadership?
task-oriented, employee-oriented and reward-oriented
What error percentage during cross-checking indicates that a plan needs further work?
What are the four advantages of the pure-project approach?
clear authority; simplified project communication; access to special expertise; project focus and priority
What are the five advantages of the matrix organization type?
clear project focus; flexible staffing; adaptability to management needs and skills; staff development opportunities; adaptable to business changes
What is a matrix organization approach?
a situation in which employees report to multiple managers
What is resource loading?
the time that individual resources have committed to a project
What usually serves as the first step in establishing team spirit?
kick-off event
What is the goal of the matrix organization type?
to integrate the best features of functional and pure-project approaches
At what point should cross-checking of a plan be completely started over?
when more than 3% of the plan requires modification
How much does the Coast Guard allow for unexpected expenses?
1/3 of total budget (1/2 of projected budget)
Where are pure-project organizations usually found?
in organizations where projects are the main focus
What assumption does reward-oriented leadership make?
that a high level of performance will result from appropriate rewards