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32 Cards in this Set

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HUMANISM
ORIGINALLY THIS CONCEPT WAS SOLELY ABOUT THE STUDY OF ANTIQUITIES OF CLASSICAL TEXTS FROM GREECE AND ROME, IT QUICKLY GREW INTO THE IDEAS OF CELEBRATING AND RECOGNIZING HUMANITIES VAST POTENTIAL FOR GROWTH AND CHANGES AND THE BELIEF THAT ONE CAN ACHIEVE GREAT THINGS WHILE ON EARTH, IN THE HERE AND NOW, BEFORE EVER GETTING AN AFTERLIFE
EXAMPLES OF HUMANISM
PETRARCH (FATHER OF HUMANISM, CELEBRATED IDEAS OF HUMANITIES); DA VINCI (HUMANIST); DANTE (INFERNO/DIVINE COMEDY); SCHOOL OF ATHENS (PAINTING BY RAPHAEL SANTI CONTAINING HISTORICAL AND CURRENT THINKERS/CHAMPIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL/INDIVIDUALISM)
FEUDALISM
POLITICAL AND MILITARY SYSTEM BASED ON THE HOLDING OF LAND WITH AN EMPHASIS ON LOCAL PROTECTION, LOCAL GOVERNMENT, AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LORD AND THE KING. THE KING GAVE PROTECTION AND, LAND AND FOOD. A BARTER SYSTEM. ONE GOT PROTECTION FROM KING IF YOU WORKED FOR HIM. SAME CONCEPT BETWEEN LORD AND THE SERF.
EXAMPLES OF FEUDALISM
CASTIGLIONE ("THE COURTIER", STATES HOW THE IDEAL COURTIER ALWAYS FOLLOWS THE RULES AND KNOWS THEIR PLACE IN SOCIETY AND OBEYS THEIR LORD); RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN KING ARTHUR AND HIS KNIGHTS IN "THE ONCE AND FUTURE KING"
MERCANTILISM
HAPPENS WHEN A COUNTRY INCREASES ITS WEALTH BY EXPORTING MORE GOODS THAN IT IMPORTS. A COUNTRY'S ECONOMIC CONDITION DEPENDS ON REQUIRING GOLD AND SILVER, EXPANDING MANUFACTURING, ENCOURAGING COMMERCE, AND OWNING COLONIES, BUILDING SHIPPING AND A NAVY
EXAMPLES OF MERCANTILISM
JEAN-BAPTISTE COLBERT (LOUIS XIV'S ADVISOR, FAVORABLE BALANCE ON TRADE); MANIPULATIVE OR PROTECTIONIST TARIFFS TO PROMOTE BALANCE OF TRADE; BRITISH'S RELIANCE ON ALL OF THEIR COLONIES FOR SUPPLIER OF RAW MATERIALS AND TRADE
COMMUNISM
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL THEORY OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH WEALTH AND PROPERTY ARE OWNED IN COMMON AND PRODUCTION AND LABOR ARE SHARED EQUALLY AMONG THE PEOPLE. IN REALITY, IT DOESN'T ALWAYS WORK THAT WAY, HISTORY HAS SHOWN THAT IN PRACTICE, THE PRODUCTION AND MEANS OF CONTROL OF ALL INDUSTRY ARE OWNED AND CONTROLLED BY THE STATE REGIME IN A TOTALITARIAN SYSTEM OF CONTROL
EXAMPLES OF COMMUNISM
MAO ZEDONG IN CHINA; RUSSIA UNDER LENIN/STALIN; NORTH KOREA UNDER KIM IL SUNG
CAPITALISM
ECONOMIC SYSTEM CHARACTERIZED BY THE INVESTMENT OF MONEY IN BUSINESS VENTURES WITH A GOAL IN MAKING A PROFIT. PURE CAPITALISM = NO GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION IN ECONOMIC MATTERS. IN REALITY, THERE HAVE BEEN MANY DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF CAPITALISM, FROM TOTALLY HANDS-OFF FREE MARKET SYSTEMS TO MORE CONTROLLED AND GOVERNMENT REGULATED SYSTEMS.
EXAMPLES OF CAPITALISM
LAISSEZ FAIRE (HANDS-OFF BY GOVERNMENT, MARKET REGULATES ITSELF); ADAM SMITH ("THE WEALTH OF NATIONS", THREE LAWS OF ECONOMICS); DUTCH AND ENGLISH PRACTICED CAPITALISM DURING THE COMMERICAL REVOLUTION
SOCIALISM
BELIEF THAT THE WEALTH OF A COUNTRY SHOULD BE SHARED EQUALLY AMONG ALL OF ITS CITIZENS; CALLS FOR COLLECTIVE GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP ON THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION AND MEANS OF DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS, MOVEMENT OR IDEALOGY COMMITTED TO CREATING GREATER SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC JUSTICE AND EQUALITY
EXAMPLES OF SOCIALISM
SOCIAL SECURITY, CANADIAN SOCIALIZED HEALTH CARE, UK'S BBC (OWNS PHONE, RADIO, TV)
NATIONALISM
A STRONG FEELING OF PRIDE, LOYALTY, OR DEVOTION FOR ONE'S OWN LAND AND PEOPLE. THE BELIEF THAT ONE'S GREATEST LOYALTY SHOULD BE TO ONE'S OWN PEOPLE OR COUNTRY
EXAMPLES OF NATIONALISM
PATRIOTISM TAKEN FEW STEPS TOO FAR; GERMANY; UNIFIED ITALY IN THE 1860'S
FASCISM
A POLITICAL MOVEMENT THAT BELIEVES IN AN EXTREME FORM OF NATIONALISM, A RIGID AND STRICT TOTALITARIAN HIERARCHY DENYING INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS, INSISTING ONTHE SUPREMACY OF THE STATE AND ADVOCATING DICTATORIAL ONE PARTY RULE
EXAMPLES OF FASCISM
MUSSOLINI'S ITALY; HITLER'S GERMANY; FRANCISCO'S SPAIN
IMPERIALISM
POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL DOMINATION OF ONE REGION OVER ANOTHER REGION. THE POLICY OF EXTENDING ONE'S RULE OVER MANY LANDS
EXAMPLES OF IMPERIALISM
BRITAIN'S POLICIES OF COLONY BUILDING IN ASIA, AMERICAS, AND AFRICA; RUDYARD KIPLING ("WHITE MAN'S BURDEN"), FRANCE IN VIETNAM/NORTH AFRICA, BELGIANS IN THE CONGO
ETHNOCENTRISM
JUDGING THE WORK BASED ON YOUR OWN CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS MAKEUP. JUDGING THE WORLD IN INFERIOR BECAUSE THEY LACK THE EXPERIENCES OF ONE'S COUNTRIES
EXAMPLES OF ETHNOCENTRISM
RUDYARD KIPLING ("WHITE MAN'S BURDEN"); CECIL RHODES; HITLER (CONCEPT OF THE ARYAN RACE)
MILITARISM
THE GLORIFICATION OF ARMED STRENGTH. GLORIFICATION OF THE IDEALS OF A PROFESSIONAL MILITARY CLASS. A POLICY IN WHICH MILITARY PREPAREDNESS IS OF PRIMARY IMPORTANCE TO A STATE. PREDOMINANCE OF THE ARMED FORCES IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF POLICY OF THE STATE
EXAMPLES OF MILITARISM
EVERY EUROPEAN COUNTRY LEADING TO WWI; SCHLIEFFEN PLAN; COLD WAR
LIBERALISM
A 19TH CENTURY POLITICAL IDEA WHICH CHAMPIONED INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS, CIVIL LIBERTIES, AND PRIVATE PROPERTY, WHILE LIMITING THE POWER OF GOVERNMENTS RIGHTS OVER ITS CITIZENS
EXAMPLES OF LIBERALISM
REBELLION OF THE PEOPLE IN "LES MISERABLES"/REVOLUTION OF 1832; VARIOUS REVOLUTIONS IN 1800'S- 1848, 1832; FRENCH AND AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS
CONSERVATISM
PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTING/CONSERVING PRE-EXISTING TRADITIONAL FORMS OF GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY. CLASSICAL CONSERVATISM AS SET FORTH BY EDMUND BURKE STRESSES CONTINUITY AND A PRESERVATION OF OUR PRESENT INSTITUTIONS FOR FEAR THAT CHANGE COULD AWAKEN THE TEMPESTS AND UNDERMINE THE FRAGILE SOCIAL ORDER
EXAMPLES OF CONSERVATISM
METTERNICH'S CONGRESS OF VIENNA; BURKE'S BOOK ON MODERN POLITICAL BELIEF; CONCERT OF EUROPE
TOTALITARIANISM
FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH ONE PERSON OF POLITICAL PARTY EXERCISES ABSOLUTE CONTROL OVER ALL SPHERES OF HUMAN LIFE AND OPPOSING POLITICAL PARTIES ARE PROHIBITED. A TOTALITARIAN STATE TRIES TO CONTROL ALL ASPECTS OF ITS CITIZEN'S LIVES. THE GOVERNMENT IS IN THE HANDS OF A MINORITY WHO OFTEN RULE THROUGH MILITARY MIGHT AND EXTREME POLITICAL REPRESSION
EXAMPLES OF TOTALITARIANISM
STALIN'S USSR; HITLER'S GERMANY; MUSSOLINI'S ITALY; COMMUNIST CHINA AND NORTH KOREA
ROMANTICISM
REACTION AGAINST NEOCLASSICISM. THIS EARLY 19TH CENTURY MOVEMENT ELEVATED THE INDIVIDUAL, THE PASSIONS, AND THE INNER LIFE. IT STRESSED STRONG EMOTION, IMAGINATION, FREEDOM FROM CLASSICAL CORRECTNESS IN ART FORMS, AND REBELLION AGAINST SOCIAL CONVENTIONS. AN ART STYLE WHICH EMPHASIZES THE PERSONAL, EMOTIONAL AND DRAMATIC THROUGH THE USE OF EXOTIC, LITERARY, OR HISTORICAL SUBJECT SUBJECT MATTER. A PORTRAYAL OF LIFE AS THE WRITER WISHES IT COULD BE- MORE ADVENTUROUS, FANTASTIC, AND PICTURESQUE
EXAMPLES OF ROMANTICISM
GOETHE ("SORROWS OF YOUNG WERTHER"); ROUSSEAU ("EMILE"); POETRY OF BYRON, SHELLEY, KEATS, WORDSWORTH; BEETHOVEN ("EROICA" SYMPHONY")
IMPRESSIONISM
FRENCH ART MOVEMENT OF THE LATE 19TH CENTURY CHARACTERIZED BY THE REPRESENTATION OF A SCENE, OBJECT, OR FIGURE THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF PAINT IN DABS OF COLOR IN ORDER TO GIVE AN IMPRESSION OF THE VIEW RATHER THAN AN ACCURATE, PHOTOGRAPHIC-LIKE DEPICTION. IMPRESSIONIST ARTISTS FREQUENTLY USED UNMIXED COLOR AND BROKEN BRUSHSTROKES TO RECORD THE WAY THEY PERCEIVED THE EFFECTS OF COLOR AND LIGHT. THEY CHOSE NONTRADITIONAL SUBJECTS AND SCENES FROM THE MODERN WORLD
EXAMPLES OF IMPRESSIONISM
MONET, CEZANNE, PISARRO