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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
continental islands*
• Located on continental shelves or detached fragments of continents
• Geologically related to continents
• Usually separated from continents by shallow sea passages
• May have been physically connected to continent during periods of low sea level (land-bridge islands)
• Inhabited by some mammals and amphibians of continental origin
• Variety of natural resources similar to that of continents
• Resource limitations not so significant
• Relatively accessible

Examples: Cuba, Trinidad, England, Madagascar, Borneo
oceanic islands*
• Originated in the ocean, not geologically related to continents
• (Almost) always volcanic
• Often remote, isolated, small
• Separated by deep water from continents
• Have limited resources and less varied environments
• Accessible to people only in the last 2,000 yrs.
Examples: St. Lucia, Barbados, Ascension, Iceland, Mauritius, Maldives, Tahiti, Hawaii
island colonization
Q: How do things get there? (“colonization vectors”)
• wind
• floating (currents)
• rafting
• birds
• human introduction (intentional and accidental)

Colonization is a rare and random event. Not only must a plant or animal survive the journey, but a reproductive pair must arrive at more or less the same time in order to establish a viable population. It all happens entirely by chance (“sweepstakes routes”).

Q: What influences the chances of arrival and successful colonization?
• area (size)
• relief (high vs. low islands)
• distance from source region
• direction of prevailing winds and currents
• the distance across intervening ocean gaps (“filter gaps”)
source region
where the plant or animal originally came from (colonization)
adaptive radiation
when a species successfully colonizes an island and survive it evolves to fill the many available ecological niches
dispersal vectors
wind, birds, human introduction (intentional: horses; accidental: rats), rafting (iguana), currents
filter effect
something about different islands have different species
Wallace's line
deep water seperates islands
concentrated in one area
* species residing on insular islands are endemic
endemic species*
very vulnerable because endemic species are on insular islands
disharmonic (unbalanced) biota*
- loss of verterbrae animals (predators on the island)
- loss leads to a loss of defensive traits
theory of island biogeography
In The Theory of Island Biogeography (1967), Robert McArthur and Edward Wilson proposed a model that islands are in a state of “dynamic equilibrium” between immigration and extinction of species.

The rate of immigration is faster for islands near a mainland source and that rate of extinction faster for small islands. Thus, a small and remote island will have the smallest number of species.
the isolation of islands
- related to endemic species
colonial legacies
the last effects that a former "island owner has on a community," think of the Francophone community
Small Island Developing States
banded together in the common interest of surviving economically against vastly larger nations; mauritius, maldives, haiti, dominican republic, jamaica
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)
a coalition of small island and low-lying coastal countries founded in 1990. The main purpose of the alliance is to consolidate the voices of small island developing states to address global climate change