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37 Cards in this Set

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island
isolated patches of niche space
types of islands?
-oceanic islands (the first ones we think of)
-ponds <3
-mountains
-basins (a portion of land that is drained by a river/ i.e. whose water drains into a river)
-remnant forests (patches of older forest surrounded by younger forest)
species richness
the number of different species in a given ecosystem (disregards population size e.g. there could be thousands of turtles on an island and 5 tigers and richness is as high as if there were thousands of tigers as well)
when immigration is HIGHER, extinction is
LOWER
when immigration is LOWER, extinction is
HIGHER
when islands are LARGER, species richness is
HIGHER
when islands are SMALLER, species richness is
LOWER
if an island is FURTHER from the mainland, species richness is
LOWER
if an island is CLOSER to the mainland, species richness is
HIGHER
when islands are CLOSER to the mainland, immigration is
HIGHER
when islands are FURTHER from the mainland, immigration is
LOWER
equilibrium
stable rate of change in the environment
allometry
relationship of body size and shape to behavior
target effect
immigration rate is higher by chance on larger islands simply due to their large size
(it is more likely that one will hit a large dartboard than a small one)
rescue effect
extinction rate is lower on less isolated islands because of the higher possibility of individuals from another population on the mainland and/or neighboring islands to replenish a given population
species-area relationship
as the size of an island increases, so does species richness
do landbridge islands follow the species-area rule?
yes, but the question is whether or not this is due more to 1) immigration/ emigration/ extinction or 2) species diversification after colonization
oceanic islands
generally are species depauperate aka low in species richness and are colonized mainly by C-T and T-G anoles
are the Lesser Antilles more similar to the landbridge islands of the Greater Antilles or the oceanic islands?
oceanic
define taxon cycle
the sequential phases of expansion and contraction of the geographic ranges of species
taxon cycle are more at play/ more apparent in the _______ Antilles
Lesser
character displacement
if similar species' geographic distribution does not overlap, then they will have similar characteristics, but if their distributions do overlap, then their characteristics can change (e.g. size) so that they occupy slightly diff. niches
example of a change in taxon cycle: phases of colonization can be followed by range ________ (a. expansion b. contraction)
b. contraction
3 possibilities for changes in body size seen in the Lesser Antilles
1) character displacement
2) taxon cycles
3) sympatric speciation
taxon cycles are altered by _______ & _______
immigration & emigration
sympatric speciation
when new species evolve from a single ancestral species whiling inhabiting the same geographic region
character displacement
when differences between two similar species (whose geographic regions overlap) are accentuated
sympatric speciation
when new species evolve from a single ancestral species whiling inhabiting the same geographic region
character displacement
when differences between two similar species (whose geographic regions overlap) are accentuated
vicariance
the separation or division of a group of organisms by a geographic barrier (causes allopatric speciation)
cladogenesis
the formation of a new group of organisms or higher taxon by evolutionary divergence from an ancestral form
(caused by speciation)
stabilizing selection
intermediate phenotype favored
directional selection
when a single, more extreme phenotype is favored, resulting in a continuous shift in allele frequency toward that phenotype (can occur when two species have overlapping niches)
divergent selection
when allele frequencies move toward the extreme phenotypes, decreasing competition and allowing coexistence
divergent selection results in...
coexistence of two species
directional selection results in...
extinction of one species
stabilizing selection means selection against...
extreme phenotypes