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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In what city did Islam begin?
Where did Charles Martel and the Franks successfully defeat the Muslim invasion of Europe?
Battle of Tours (France)
Where were "Arabic" numerals first developed?
India (during the Gupta Dynasty)
What is a caliph?
successor to Muhammad (ruler)
What is a hajj?
pilgrimage to Mecca (one of the 5 Pillars)
Who is the final prophet of Islam?
What is the Quran?
the holy book for Muslims; God's word to Muhammad
What are the three monotheistic religions that share many beliefs?
Judaism, Christianity and Islam
What word refers to someone who practices Islam?
What does "Islam" mean?
submission/sacrifice to God
What are the Five Pillars in general terms?
they are the five duties that Muslims must follow
What are the Five Pillars in specific terms?
fast during Ramadan
give alms/charity
make a pilgrimage/hajj to Mecca
pray 5 times a day
What is Ramadan?
the holiest month for Muslims
What caused th Sunni-Shi'a schism?
differences over the rightfully successor to Muhammad
Why was the Battle of Tours important?
it prevented Muslim expansion into Europe; preserved Christianity in Europe
Why were Muslims successful in their expansion?
united by faith
weaknesses of other empires
skilled and well-organized military
What were the results of Muslim expansion?
increased trade; destruction of Byzantine and Persian Empires, increased conflict with Christianity and Judaism
What area did Islam expand into from 632 to 1200 AD?
Spain, North Africa, southwest Asia
Why did Muslims expand into sub-Saharan and western Africa?
trade (gold for salt)
Where did Islam begin?
Arabian Peninsula
What language unifies the people of the Muslim faith?
What are the holy cities for Muslims?
Mecca, Medina, Damascus, Jerusalem, Baghdad
In which fields did Muslim scholars make many achievements?
medicine (pharmacies, continued scientific exploration of sicknesses), math (esp. Algebra and Arabic numerals), architecture, literature, calligraphy
What is the Dome of the Rock?
holy site for Jews and Muslims where Muslims believe Muhammad rose to heaven
Who is Allah?
Muslim name for God
What was the name of the great Byzantine Emperor who codified Roman laws?
What were four geographical advantages of Constantinople?
easily protected, distant from Germanic invaders, easily fortified peninsula, it had great harbors, it was the crossroads of east-west and north-south trade, proxmity to the Silk Road
Define proximity
Who moved the Roman capital to Byzantium?
What city served as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire?
What cultures were preserved by the Byzantine Empire?
Greek and Roman
What was the primary language of the Byzantine Empire?
What is a schism?
a split or division, usually religious
What was the most important unifying force in the Byzantine Empire?
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
What "new religion" was formed as a result of the East-West Schism?
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Describe the power of the Byzantine Emperor?
supreme power over government, religion and law
Who was Cyril?
An Orthodox missionary who spread Eatern Orthodox Christianity to the people of Eastern Euopre, especially the Rus
What were three Byzantine architectural/artistic acccomplishments?
mosaics, dome, icons, Hagia Sophia
What was the name of the Byzantine emperor who reconquered many Roman lands?
What was the name of the Byzantine Emperor who greatly expanded trade?
Who was the Christian missionary who adopted a Slavic alphabet and spread it to Eastern Europe?
What language was used by later Byzantine emperors?
What factors produced the schims between the Roman Church and the Byzantine Church?
Latin v Greek
pope v patriarch
celibacy v non-celibacy
icons v no icons
What is an icon?
a religious picture or symbol of spiritual importance
What is celibacy
no sexual relations/no marriage
Where was the Eastern Church centered?
Where was the Western Church centered?