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32 Cards in this Set

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Ka'ba
the black cube that is in the center of Mecca; physical center for pilgrimage; spiritual center for prayer
Hijra
the "immigration"; refers to the time Muhammad moved from Mecca to Medina; year 1 for the Muslim calendar (year 622 AD on the Christian time marking scheme)
rasul
means "messenger", or one who delivers a message from God; the third role of Muhammad as prophet: he speaks for God
iman
articles of faith; the basic doctrines or fundamental beliefs of Islam.
shirk
means "association", and refers to associating or identifying anything with Allah; it is considered an unforgivable sin in Islam; sometimes translated "idolatry"
ihsan
right conduct; the basic codes of morality for Islam; the behaviors that are "righteous"
'ibadat
literally "service", refers to religious duties; the prescribed worship practices of Islam (also known as the "five pillars")
hajj
the pilgrimage to Mecca
jihad
literally means "struggle"; refers to spiritual warfare, both in the heart and on the earth
shari'ah
often translated "law"; refers to a more general code of behavior or rule for all life
Qur'an
the "recitation"; the words of God; the revelation of Islam
Hadith
refers to the sayings of the prophet when he was not reciting the words of God; these are considered authoritative.
Sunna
refers to the actions of the prophet; these are also considered authoritative and a model for correct behavior
Sunni
the majority sect of Islam; the most conservative; adheres strictly to the Qur'an as its source of authority. multiple leaders come from democratic community. intolerant to other beliefs , use force in expansion of Islam
ulama
the "learned ones"; an assembly of men who are learned in Qur'an, Hadith, and Sunna, and capable of making legal decisions
Shi'ites
the principal sect of Islam; followers of the Imam, the leader who has come through the blood-line of the Ali clan. more tolerant and accepting. 10-15% of overall Muslim population.
imam
leader in prayer for Sunni; the spiritual and political leader for Shi'ites
Sufis
"wool wearers", the mystical sect of Islam
3 legs of Islamic faith
iman- right belief
ihsan- right behavior
ibadat- right service
Right Belief:
(1) Unity of God, no other gods: la ilaha illa Allah
(2) Guidance of angels
(3) Divine Direction of Prophets and Apostles
(4) Revelation of Scriptures
(5) Future Resurrection and JKudgment
(6) Decree of God
Future Resurrection and Judgment
body resurrected and joins soul
judged on faith and faithfulness to God and Qur'an, loyalty to the prophet, commitment to community of Islam
angels
carry God's message to humans
angels- good
jinn- good/bad
Shayatin- evil
prophets and apostles
nabi and rasul
both carry God's message but prophets do not write it down or share/convey it with people
Abraham, Ishmael, Issac, Joseph, Lot = prophets
Moses, David, Jesus, Muhammad = apostles (and prophets)
Shahadah
"witness"
la ilaha illa Allah, Muhammadun rasul Allah
a declaration and a belief
Salat
"prayer" 5x per day: dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, after dark
Zakat
giving
Sawm
"fasting", Ramaddan, one lunar month
Five Pillars of Islam
(1) Shahadah- witness
(2) Salat- prayer
(3) Zakat- giving
(4) Sawm- fasting
(5) Hajj- pilgrimage
The Near Eastern Worldview
(1) Radical Monotheism
-cosmic/universal God
-theocratic hierarchy
(2) Ethical Monotheism
-justice
-judgment
(3) Personal Monotheism
-personal God
-revelation
-prophets
-eschatology
Early Islamic Influences
-Early persians/Aryans, divine reciprocity
-Judaism, covenant, laws, prophets, hygiene & diet, tithes, moral codes, abhorrence of images
-Later Persians/Zoroastrianism, personal, ethical, and radical monotheism
-Christianity, continued monotheisms
-Arab ethos, creater God called Allah
Arabian peninsula
surrounded on 3 sides by water, thought to be cursed, people involved in trade
Muhammad- life and ministry
born in 6th century, quite poor, grew up in Mecca- a city of excesses, many gods were woshipped, he was drawn towards monotheism, didn't get a good education but was trustworthy.
Revelation from God through Gabriel. Meccan ministry: religious reform, social justice, divine judgment. His ministry was not well received because it contradicted their beliefs and the status quo.
Moved to Medina which wanted a leader in 622 A.D. (became 1 in Islamic calendar) Medinan ministry- religious, civic, military leader, prayer 5x each day towards Mecca; give alms to poor