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57 Cards in this Set

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in the 1880's, the government employed 2 Canadians (George and WIlliam Chaffey) to develop irrigation projects along the Murray River... provided water for friut trees and vines growing in hot and arrid areas
Irrigated vineyards in dry inland Australia have alaways been an important part of the country's wine industry
Irrigated Inland= 70% of Australia's grape production
Salinity issues are problematic...
Drip and Deficite irrigatoin have led to a more efficient utilization of water
Bore holes can be nessicary to access ground water
(Irrigation and Salinity...)
Lots of high saline soils!
When irrigating these areas, it is key not to over water as it can start to release the saline into the vineyard and destroy it...
Changes in vineyard management after the 1970's
Mechanical pruning and harvesting made large scale vineyard projects more economical... Over 80% of all Aus vineyards are machine harvested!
Lack of labor due to a smaller, spread out population makes it nearly impossible to perform manual harvesting
Flying Winemakers...
Many of the Australia winemakers have spent time in northern hemisphere vineyards/winery learning other areas "tricks of the trade"
They aren't shy about bringing these ideas back to Australia to give them a try there
Examples: Acidification, Canopy Management, Mechanical Harvesting,
so on...
2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009...
Maybe southeast winemaking regions are not sustainable?
Water rights can be HUGE deal
Climate issues may be able to help regulate the massive surplus of wine being produced...
South Australia
Produces over 50% of Australia's wine
Phylloxera free!
Key areas: Barossa Valley, Eden Valley, Clare Valley, McLaren Vale, Coonawarra, Padthaway, Riverland
South Australia, Adelaide
Australia's largest quality wine district
Irrigation is the norm with over 60% of the vineyards set up for it
Classic full-throttle Aussie Shiraz, especially the old vine stuff
Best wines typically ceom from hillside vineyards rather than the valley floor
Phylloxera free area!!!
Traditional viticulture (bush pruning, no irrigation) results inlow yields of high quality grapes
They want you to think that it's marginal and cool here, but that is bullshit...
Hot, dry summers with very low rainfall
Warm (being nice...) continental climate
Two basic types:
Brown, loamy sand to clay loam...
Sany light brownish Grey to dark grey brown soils...

Relativly low in fertility
Acidity tends to increase with depth
Clare Valley GI
South Australia, Adilade, Mount Lofty Ranges
Lies to the north of Barossa and is 1/3 the size
Little irrigation is practiced
Home to some of the counrty's best Riesling (Polish River Hill and Watervale are noteable...)
Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz have more definition, higher acidity
Clare Valley GI
Extreme climate- hotter and drier than most of South Australia
Patchwork of hills and valleys- generally higher altitude than surrounding areas
Eden Valley GI
South Australia, Adelaide, Barossa
Rocky, acidic soils
Cool and wet for Australia
Known for excellent Riesling and some very good Chardonnay... Viogner and Semillion are developing a good reputaion
Home to Henschke and their famous Shiraz
McLaren Vale GI
South Australia, Adelaide, Fleurieu
Ideal grape growing conditions!
Mild, warm summers
Adequate rainfall
Great drainage
No frosts or droughts
Site of Australia's oldest vineyard- the John Reynell vineyard
Shiraz is the best wines produced here, but all of the usual suspects are planted here as well
Coonawarra GI
South Australia, Adelaide, Limestone Coast
Narrow rectanlgular strip of land
Crumbly, red soils known as "Terra Rossa" topsoils with free draining limestone subsoils and a high watertable
Consistent cloud cover
One of the coolest (temp) areas for viticulture in Australia
Degree days are lower than those of the Cote de Beaune
Padthaway GI
South Australia, Adelaide, Limestone Coast
North of Coonawarra and similar in climate (cooler)
Red-brownclay with limestone soils
Good reputation for white wines (Riesling, Chardonnay, Semillon)
Good Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz as well
Adelaide Hills GI
South Australia, Adelaide, Mount Lofty Ranges
Mazes of hills and valleys just outside of Adelaide
Generally cool climate
Major risk of moisture during flowering can lead to poor fruitset in some years
Ideal area for Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay and Pinot Noir as well as Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz in warmer areas
Nice bubbles here...?...says ISG...
Riverland GI
South Australia, Adelaide, Lower Murray
Vines have been grown here since the introduction of irrigation from the Murray River at the end of the 19th century
Hot and dry climate with little rainfall
High yeilds due to irrigation... This one area is responsible for almost 50% of the annual Aussie vintage
Huge production of bag-in-box wine made from Thompson Seedless... gross...
Lots of base wine for brandy production as well
New South Wales
Southeast Australia
Huge quantity producing area with several quality producing regions thrown in, too
Lower Hunter Valley GI
Southeast Australia, New South Wales
Hot and humid days with cooler nights
known for full-bodies Shiraz and 'unique' style of Semillon
Upper Hunter Valley GI
Southeast Australia, New South Wales
Hotter and less humid/wet than it's other half, Lower Hunter Valley
Best known for white wines, particularlly Chardonnay.
Pioneered by Penfold's
Riverina GI
Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (M.I.A.)
Southeast Australia, New South Wales, Big Rivers
Accounts for 10% of total production in New South Wales
Volume is typically the name of the game here...
Some good quality late harvest wines...
Botrytis is common
Some very frin sweet wiens from Riesling and Semillon

*Source of most Yellowtail! gross!
Mudgee GI
Southeast Australia, New South Wales, Central Ranges
Same latitude as Hunter Valley
High altitude
Long ripening period
Good Chardonnay and Semillon
Orange GI
Southeast Australia, New South Wales, Central Ranges

It exists...
Hilltops GI
Southeast Australia, New South Wales, Southern New South Wales

It exists...
Canberra District GI
Southeast Australia, New South Wales, Southern New South Wales

It exists...
Tumbarumba GI
Southeast Australia, New South Wales, Southern New South Wales
Glenrowan GI
North East Victoria
Classic dessert wine area
Some 'interesting' Cabernet Sauvignon also...
Brown Brothers use the name "Milawa"
Rutherglen GI
North East Victoria
Most famous dessert wine area in Australlia
Home to rare Liqueur Muscat (from Muscat Blanc a Petit Grains) and Liqueur Tokay (from Muscadelle)
An emerging area for for premium varietal wines as well
Goulburn Valley GI
Central Victoria
Famous due to the efforts of Chateau Tahbilk (est.1860)
Excellent Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz
Great Chardonnay, Riesling, Rhone style whites as well
Macedon GI
Central Victoria
Known for Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Riesling
Ballarat GI
Central Victoria
Reputation for sparkling wines...
Bendigo GI
Central Victoria
Excellent red wone area known for distinctive Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon
Yarra Valley GI
Victoria, Port Phillip
Cool climate area
Excellent Pinot Noir and Chardonnay
"Lettuce Crisp" Riesling
Some very good sparkling wines
Moet&Chandon invested in Green Point Vineyards
Great Western GI
Grampians GI
Western Victoria
Recently had name changed to Grampians...
Traditional area for quality sparkling wines
Some very good Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon as well
Pyrenees GI
Western Victoria
Area was formerly known as Avoca
Very good red wine area with Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot being the shining stars
Mornington Peninsula GI
Victoria, Port Phillip
Cool, damp from moderating ocean breeze... True maritime climate
Ideal for Piont Noir and Chardonnay, hope for Pinot Gris and Viogner
Some volcanic soils
Western Australia
Exciting and realativly new area
Most of what is now considered to be 'classic' areas were little more than quiet backwaters less than 40 years ago
Wines usually combine Aussie ripeness with European structure
South= variable climate with maritime influences!
North/Inland= Continental influences!
Western Australia
White: Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc

Red: Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Merlot, Pinot Noir
Dr John Gladstones
Important figure in the development of Western Australia's wine production
Published groundbreaking research paper in 1960's
He painted a very optomistic picture of Margaret River as a prime area for viticulture...
Comparisons to Bordeaux for climate
Moderating effects of the coastal wind
Suitability of Cabernet Sauvignon
Margaret River GI
Western Austalia, South Western Australia
Stongly maritime influenced climate- warm, but cooled by ocean breeze
Unparalleled ripeness in grapes is possible
home to one of Australia's best Chardonnays- Leewin
Excellent Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz
Very good Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc blends
Great Southern GI
Western Australia, South West Australia
Approximatly 1,600 ha under vine
Coolest (temp) growing area in wwestern Australia
Good for Pinot Noir, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Riesling
Subregions of Frankland River and Mount Baker have generated some enthusiasm for Shiraz and Riesling...
Swan District GI
Western Australia, Greater Perth
Located northeats of Perth
800ha under vine
Hot, Mediterranean climate
One of the hottes wine regions in the world
Rlieable afternoon breeze cools the area somewhat
Irrigation is essential
Perhaps best suited for fortified wines?
Since the 1980's this has been the source of base wine for some very good sparkling producers
Very good Riesling and Chardonnay
Some success with Pinot Noir as well
Too cold to ripen Cabernet Sauvignon
New Zealand
North Island is on the same latitude as Tasmania
1,200 miles of ocean between the islands!
Generally speaking the North Island is warmer and less mountainous than the South Island and see more rain
New Zealand
Wide range of soil types- 70+
Soils are 'young'
Silt, sand, gravel, stony alluvial soils are the most common
Due to the diverse soils and diverse micoclimates, there is signifigant diversity in the wines from here as well
New Zeland
Little land to spare!
No Riverland here... Bulk production is not economically feasible
Producers concentrate on higher price points
85% of wines are under screw cap
New Zeland
25 varieties planted over 10 regions!!!
Chardonnay- 18%
Sauvignon Blanc- 36%
Riesling- 4%
Chenin Blanc- little...
Pinot Noir- 16%
Merlot- 8%
Cabernet Sauvignon- 3%
Syrah- 1%
New Zeland- North Island
(Important Regions)
Hawks Bay
New Zealand- South Island
(Imortant Regions)
Central Otago
Aukland CO
New Zealand, North Island
Traditinal center of the industry
Many large wineries are still located here
Now represents less than 2% of teh planted area in all of NZ
Small production of high quality reds from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec

* Waiheke Island is famous for stunning Bordeaux stly reds due to sun and lack of humidity
Gisborne CO
New Zealand, North Island
Also called "Poverty Bay", used to eb called "Carafe Country"
Fertile river valley with poor draining soils
50% of vineyards are devoted to Chardonnay
More wine produced than Hawkes Bay with 1/2 of teh vineyards
Now home to come very high quality Gewurztraminer and Sauvignon Blanc
Red accounts for only 10% of production here
Hawkes Bay CO
New Zealand, North Island
Driest wine region in the country
Old river bed from meandering river
Best wines are from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot
A few decent whites from Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay
Gimblet Gravels is the most famous area
Wellington CO
New Zealand, North Island
Sometimes called "Wairarpa CO"
Home to Martinborough CO!
Only the 6th largest region, but important wines!
Stoney, free-draining soils
Cult following for Pinot Noir, and rightly so, some of the best in the country
Very good area for Chardonnay and Gewurztraminer as well
Marlborough CO
New Zealand, South Island
New Zealand's most famous and largest wine region
Fastes growing area
Shallow, stony, free-draing soils that reflect the sun's heat
Stakes it's reputation on Suavignon Blanc
Some very good Chardonnay as well as a growing area for quality Pinot Noir
Canterbury CO
New Zealand, South Island
Vineyards located on plains surrounding Christchurch
Best wines from Waipara Valley which has chalky, limestone soild with excellent drainage
Long, dry summers with warmer than average temps due to protection from coastal hills
Showing promise in Chardonnay and Piont Noir
Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc are emerging...
Central Otago CO
New Zealand, South Island
Most marginal climate fro grape growing... Cooler than the Mosel! 200 Degree days below the theoretical minimum! Only continental climate in NZ!
"Wines with ALTITUDE!!!"
Most southernly wine making region in the world
7th most widely planted and fastest growing region in NZ
Pinot Noir is the shinning star
Riesling and Chardonnay may prove to be better suited for the location
Quartz Reef subregion is producing some exceptional sparlking wine
Nelson CO
New Zealand, South Island
Formerly an area for hops and tobacco
Reputation is over shadowed by Marlborough...
Land is expensive here and plots are small
Stony, well-drained soils make it ideal for premium wine production
Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir do great here
Home to many boutique wineries and artists

*Waimea= great subregion, rain shadow effected!