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43 Cards in this Set

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What are the two important winds in Jerez?
Levante: (southeast) hot, dry, bakes grapes, brings insects
Poniente: (west) humid, fresh
What are the three main soils in Jerez?
Albariza: Chalk, good drainage, retains moisture
Arena: Sandy, higher yields, coastal
Barro: Clay, full-bodied coarse wines, valleys
What are the three white grapes used to make Sherry?
Palomino
Pedro Ximenez
Moscatel
What is a pago?
An individual vineyard in Jerez
What is the main training system used in Jerez?
Vara y Pulgar:
growers prune alternate spurs each year
What is the minimum aging requirement for all Sherry?
3 years
What are the types of generoso Sherries, and what do they have in common?
Fino, Amontillado, Manzanilla, Oloroso, Palo Cortado
They are all dry.
What are the types of Generoso Liqueur wines and what do they all have in common?
Pale Cream (Fino), Cream (Oloroso), Medium (Amontillado)
They are all blended with grape must or naturally sweet wines.
What are the two types of "naturally sweet" Sherries and how are they made?
Pedro Ximenez, Moscatel
They are made from sun-dried grapes (soleo) and fortified during fermentation.
What are the four white grapes used to make Marsala, and which two are preferred?
Preferred: Grillo, Inzolia
Catarratto, Damaschino
What style of Marsala is made from red grapes, and what are they?
Rubino
Perricone, Calabrese (Nero d'Avola), Nerello Mascalese
What are the sweetness levels of Marsala?
Secco: max 40 g/l
Semisecco: 40-100 g/l
Dolce: min 100 g/l
What are the cask aging classifications for Marsala?
Fine: 1 year
Superiore: 2 years
Superiore Riserva: 4 years
Vergine: 5 years
Vergine Stravecchio: min 10 years
What is the main vine-training system in Madeira?
Pergola, vines suspended on low trellises called "latada" to combat subtropical fungal disease
What are the four noble grape varieties of Madeira?
Sercial (Esgana Cao)
Verdelho (Gouveio)
Boal (Bual, Malvasia Fina)
Malmsey (Malvasia Candida)
Despite not being one of the four noble grapes, this grape accounts for 80-85% of Madeira's production.
Tinta Negra Mole
What is an estufa?
A stainless steel vat that heats Madeira wine by circulating hot water through coils, a process called "estufagem"
What is the canteiro process?
In making Madeira, the best wines are cask-aged for at least 2 years in attics, exposed to the warmth of the sun.
What is a "Special Reserve" Madeira?
A multi-vintage blend between 10-15 years old. Often made of a single noble varietal, heated by the Canteiro method.
What is an "Extra Reserve" Madeira?
A multi-vintage blend between 15-20 years old.
What is a Colheita Madeira?
85% minimum single vintage, aged minimum 5 years before bottling.
What is a Harvest Madeira?
Single vintage Madeira, aged from 5-10 years.
What is a Frasquiera or Garrafeira Madeira?
Vintage Madeira aged minimum 20 years in cask, produced using Canteiro method, single varietal or blend.
What is a Vinho da Roda/Vinho da Torno/Vinho da Volta?
A rare wine no longer produced, made in the traditional style, undergoing an ocean journey across the equator.
List the four main varietal styles of Madeira from driest to sweetest.
Sercial - driest
Verdelho - medium dry
Bual - medium sweet
Malmsey - sweetest
What are the preferred red grapes for Port that must constitute at least 60% of the blend?
Touriga Nacional, Touriga Francesa, Tinta Roriz, Tinta Cao, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Amarela, Tinta Francisca, Bastardo, Mourisco Tinto
What are some of the preferred white Port grapes?
Gouvelo, Malvasia Fina, Viosinho, Rabigato, Escana Cao, Folgasao
What is the name of the spirit added to port to arrest fermentation?
Aguardente - "burning water"
What is a pipe?
Traditional barrel used for aging and shipping Port. Varies in size up to 620 liters.
What is Ruby Port?
Deeply colored, simple, inexpensive Port. No vintage. Often aged in bulk for 2-3 years.
What is Ruby Reserve Port?
Similar to Ruby Port but offers more complexity and character.
What is Vintage Port?
The most expensive Port - only 1-3% of production, only made in exceptional years. Aged in cask before bottling by July 30 of the 3rd year after harvest. Develops in bottle for decades.
What is Single Quinta Vintage Port?
Product of one estate, one harvest. Made in same process as Vintage Port.
What is Late-Bottled Vintage Port?
Spends 4-6 years in cask before bottling. Has some tones of Tawny Port, retains tones of Ruby Port. Most are filtered.
What is Tawny Port?
Usually simple, without extensive cask aging - lesser vineyards, vintages, less extraction.
What is Reserve Tawny?
Min 7 years age before bottling. Blended from several vintages. Improves with bottle aging.
What is Tawny with Indication of Age?
May be 10, 20, 30, 40 years old. Progressively more concentrated, developed. Matured in seasoned wood. 30-40 year olds display rancio.
What is Colheita Tawny?
Vintage-dated Port, min 7 years in cask.
What are the main grapes used in Australian Tawny Port?
Shiraz, Grenache, Touriga, Mataro, Cab Sauvignon
What grape is typically used in Australian Vintage Port?
Shiraz
What grape is used to make Liqueur Tokay in Australia?
Muscadelle
What are the two best-known regions for Liqueur Muscat in Australia?
Rutherglen
Glenrowan
Briefly describe the three general methods of wine fortification.
1. Port style: spirit added during fermentation, preserving sugars
2. Sherry style: spirit added after fermentation
3. Mistelle style: grape must fortified prior to fermentation